Widespread chytrid infection across frogs in the Peruvian Amazon suggests critical role for low elevation in pathogen spread and persistence

Autoři: Imani D. Russell aff001;  Joanna G. Larson aff001;  Rudolf von May aff001;  Iris A. Holmes aff001;  Timothy Y. James aff001;  Alison R. Davis Rabosky aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Zoology (UMMZ), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222718


Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are becoming more frequent as climate changes wildlife communities at unprecedented rates, driving population declines and raising concerns for species conservation. One critical disease is the global pandemic of chytridiomycosis in frogs, which can be caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Although there is clear evidence for Bd-induced mortality across high-elevation frog communities, little attention is given to the role of lowlands in Bd’s persistence and spread because low elevations are assumed to be too warm to harbor significant levels of Bd. Here, we report widespread Bd infection across 80 frog species from three sites in the lowland Peruvian Amazon, an area with no documented Bd-related amphibian declines. Despite observing no clinical signs of infection in the field, we found that 24–46% of individuals were infected per site (up to ≈105,000 zoospore equivalents per frog) by three Bd strains from the global pandemic lineage (Bd-GPL). We also found collection site and seasonal effects to be only weak predictors of Bd prevalence and load, with lower elevation and drier habitats marginally decreasing both prevalence and load. We found no further effect of host phylogeny, ecotype, or body size. Our results showing high and widespread prevalence across a lowland tropical ecosystem contradict the expectations based on the global pattern of pathogenicity of Bd that is largely restricted to higher elevations and colder temperatures. These findings imply that the lowlands may play a critical role in the spread and persistence of Bd over time and space.

Klíčová slova:

Amphibians – Body temperature – Frogs – Fungal pathogens – Phylogenetics – Polymerase chain reaction – Disease dynamics – Comparative sequence analysis


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