Determinants of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, West Ethiopia: Unmatched case-control study

Autoři: Birhanu Daba Tulu aff001;  Emiru Merdassa Atomssa aff002;  Hylemariam Mihiretie Mengist aff003
Působiště autorů: Nekemte Town Health office, Nekemte, Ethiopia aff001;  Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia aff002;  Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



Anemia is a common clinical problem contributing to increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Anemia can be caused by different factors apart from known diseases. The main aim of this study was to identify determinants of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the public health facilities of Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, West Ethiopia, 2017.


Health facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 191 anemic and 382 non-anemic pregnant women from September 7, 2017, to October 25, 2017, in Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, West Ethiopia. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires from nine health facilities. Hemoglobin level determination, hemo-parasite diagnosis, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, and stool examination were done in the laboratories of the respective health centers. Cleaned and coded data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequency, proportion, mean and standard deviation were computed to summarize the data and presented by tables and bar graphs. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of predictors and response variables at P ≤ 0.05. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was used to show the strength of association between predictors and outcome variables.


A total of 573 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Monthly income < 500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 9.16, 95% CI: 4.23, 19.82), heavy menstrual bleeding (AOR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.38, 4.09), taking iron supplement irregularly (AOR = 2.87, 95%CI:1.41, 5.84), Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) < 23 cm (AOR = 3.42, 95%CI: 2.07, 5.63), low dietary diversity score (AOR = 12.30, 95%CI: 4.64, 32.72), medium dietary diversity score (AOR = 3.40, 95%CI:1.48, 7.84) and intestinal helminthic infections (AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: 3.44, 11.58) were significantly associated with anemia during pregnancy.


Average monthly income < 500 Ethiopian birr, heavy menstrual bleeding, low and medium dietary diversity score, taking of iron supplements irregularly, MUAC < 23 cm and intestinal helminthic infections were identified as independent determinants of anemia during pregnancy. Therefore, improving dietary diversity intake, routine deworming and empowering women on taking iron regularly are vital to prevent anemia during pregnancy.

Klíčová slova:

anémia – Antenatal care – Ethiopia – Gastrointestinal tract – Helminth infections – Pregnancy – Public and occupational health – Iron deficiency anemia


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2019 Číslo 10
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