Prevalence, associated factors and health impact of intimate partner violence against women in different life stages

Autoři: Belén Sanz-Barbero aff001;  Natalia Barón aff001;  Carmen Vives-Cases aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics. National School of Public Health, Institute of Health Carlos III. Madrid, Spain aff001;  Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain aff002;  Joint Research Institute National Distance Education University and Institute of Health Carlos III (IMIENS), Madrid, Spain aff003;  Public Health Research Group, Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, Alicante University, Alicante, Spain aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



The effect of age on intimate partner violence (IPV) against women has received little attention. The objective of this study is to analyze the prevalence, risk factors and health impact of current IPV in different life stages.


We analyzed a sub-sample of 8,935 ever-partnered women aged 16 years and older from the Spanish Macrosurvey on Gender Violence of 2014. Main outcomes: current physical/ sexual IPV and current psychological-only IPV. The impact of IPV on health was analyzed using the variables self-perceived health, mental health and activity limitations. Risk factors were assessed using the prevalence ratio (PR) from Poisson regression models with robust variance. Analyses were stratified by age (young people, adults, and elderly people).


Abuse in childhood increases the likelihood of IPV in any life stage. A higher education level decreases the probability of physical/sexual IPV across all ages. Unemployment increases the probability of IPV in adult women (physical/sexual-IPV, PR:1.7; psychological-IPV, PR:1.3). Being an immigrant increases the likelihood of physical/sexual IPV in adult women (PRwomen:1.91). Women exposed to current physical/sexual IPV have a greater likelihood of reporting poor self-perceived health (PRyoungpeople:2.59; PRadults:1.68; PRelderly:1.28), poor mental health (PRyoungpeople:3.10; PRadults:2.61; PRedlerly:2.17) and activity limitations (PRyoungpeople:2.44; PRadults:1.98). For psychological IPV only, there is an increase in the probability of poor self-perceived health (PRadults:1.37; PRelderly:1.19), poor mental health (PRyoungpeople:2.24; PRadults:2.16; PRelderly:1.69), and activity limitations (PRadults:1.30; PRelderly:1.18).


We found both common factors and differential factors when looking at IPV by age group. This shows the need to link gender violence prevention with the social circumstances of the population across different life stages.

Klíčová slova:

Adults – Age groups – Educational attainment – Elderly – Employment – Geriatrics – Intimate partner violence – Mental health and psychiatry


1. Council of Europe. Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. 2011. Accessed 17 December 2018.

2. European Institute for Gender Equality. Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union. 2014. Accessed 17 December 2018.

3. United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. Global Study on Homicide 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. 14.IV.1). 2014. eISBN: 978-92-1-054205-0. Accessed 9 January 2019

4. World Health Organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. 2013. ISBN: 978 92 4 156462 5. Accessed 9 January 2019

5. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA): Violence Against Women Survey, 2012. 2015. Special Licence Access. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 7730.

6. Loxton D, Dolja-Gore X, Anderson AE, Townsend N. Intimate partner violence adversely impacts health over 16 years and across generations: A longitudinal cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2016; 12(6): e0178138.

7. Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen HA, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts CH. WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women Study Team. Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. Lancet. 2006; 368:1260–9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69523-8 17027732

8. Sanz-Barbero B, López Pereira P, Barrio G, Vives-Cases C. Intimate partner violence against young women: prevalence and associated factors in Europe. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2018a; 72:611–6.

9. Koepsell JK, Kernic MA, Holt VL. Factors that Influence Battered Women to Leave their Abusive Relationships. Violence and Victims.2006; 21:131–47. 16642735

10. Boadu YA, Messing JT, Stith SM, Anderson JR, O’Sullivan CS, Campbell JC. Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Women: Factors That Predict Leaving an Abusive Relationship. Violence against Women. 2012; 18:611–33. doi: 10.1177/1077801212453139 22807500

11. Coker AL, Smith PH, McKeown RE, King MJ. Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence by type: physical, sexual, and psychological battering. American Journal of Public Health. 2000; 90:553–9. doi: 10.2105/ajph.90.4.553 10754969

12. Sociological Research Center. Macrosurvey of Violence Against Women 2014. 2014 Accessed 9 January 2019

13. Statistical division Publications of the United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2014). Guidelines for the production of statistics on violence against women: statistical surveys. ISBN: 978-92-1-161567-8 Accessed 28 June 2019

14. Vives-Cases C, Alvarez-Dardet C, Gil-González D, Torrubiano-Domínguez J, Rohlfs I, Escribà-Agüir V. Sociodemographic profile of women affected by intimate partner violence in Spain. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2009; 23:410–4. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2009.02.007 19647351

15. Vives-Cases C, Torrubiano-Domínguez J, Escribà-Agüir V, Ruiz-Pérez I, Montero-Piñar MI, Gil-González D. Social determinants and health effects of low and high severity intimate partner violence. Annals of Epidemiology.2011; 21:907–13. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.02.003 21440455

16. Capaldi DM, Knoble NB, Shortt JW, Kim HK. A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse. 2012; 3:231–80. doi: 10.1891/1946-6560.3.2.231 22754606

17. Sanz-Barbero B, Rey L, Otero-García L. Estado de salud y violencia de pareja contra la mujer [Health status and intimate partner violence]. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2014; 28:102–108. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2013.08.004 24095626

18. Sanz-Barbero B, Otero-García L, Vives-Cases C. Factors Associated With Women's Reporting of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain. J Interpers Violence. 2018b; 33(15):2402–2419. doi: 10.1177/0886260515625512 26802045

19. National Institute of Statistics. Flujo de inmigración procedente del extranjero por semestre, sexo y edad. 2018.

20. Kane MN, Green D, Jacobs RJ. Perceptions of intimate partner violence, age, and self-enhancement bias. J Elder Abuse Negl.2011; 23(1):89–114. doi: 10.1080/08946566.2011.534710 21253932

21. McGarry J, Ali P, Hinchliff S. Older women, intimate partner violence and mental health: a consideration of the particular issues for health and healthcare practice. J Clin Nurs.2017; 26(15–16):2177–2191. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13490 27487083

22. Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. IX Informe del Observatorio Estatal de Violencia Sobre la Mujer 2015. 2015b ISBN:978-84-7670-734-0

23. Kuijpers KF, van der Knaap LM, Lodewijks IA. Victims' influence on intimate partner violence revictimization: a systematic review of prospective evidence. Trauma Violence and Abuse.2011; 12:198–219.

24. Andalusian Institute for Women () Voces tras los Datos. Una mirada cualitativa a la violencia de género en adolescentes. Carmen Ruiz Repullo. 2016. ISBN: 978-84-608-5826-3

25. Harden BJ, Buhler A, Parra LJ. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. Trauma, Violence and Abuse. 2016; 17(4):366–86. doi: 10.1177/1524838016658878 27580663

26. Guedes DT, Vafaei A, Alvarado BE, Curcio CL, Guralnik JM, Zunzunegui MV et al. Experiences of violence across life course and its effects on mobility among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study. British Medical Journal Open. 2016; 13;6(10): e012339.

27. Bellis MA, Hardcastle K, Ford K, Hughes K, Ashton K, Quigg Z et al. Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences—a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being. BMC Psychiatry. 2017; 23;17(1):110. doi: 10.1186/s12888-017-1260-z 28335746

28. dos Santos Gomes C, Pirkle CM, Zunzunegui MV, Taurino Guedes D, Fernandes De Souza Barbosa J, et al. Frailty and life course violence: The international mobility in aging study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2018; 76:26–33. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2018.02.002 29454241

29. United Nations Development Programme (2017). Human Development Reports. Gender Inequality Index.

30. Alvarez MJ, Ramirez SO, Frietze G, Field C, Zárate MA. A Meta-Analysis of Latinx Acculturation and Intimate Partner Violence. Trauma Violence and Abuse. 2018; 25:1524838018801327.

31. Kim J, Gray KA. (Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision After Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2008; 23(10):1465–82. doi: 10.1177/0886260508314307 18309037

32. Campbell JC. Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet 2002; 359: 1331–6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08336-8 11965295

33. Montero I, Escriba V, Ruiz-Perez I, Vives-Cases C, Martín-Baena D, Talavera M et al. Interpersonal violence and women's psychological well-being. Journal of Womens Health (Larchmt. 2011; 20:295–301.

34. Foshee VA, Reyes HL, Gottfredson NC, Chang LY, Ennelt ST. A longitudinal examination of psychological, behavioral, academic, and relationship consequences of dating abuse victimization among a primarily rural sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2013; 53:723–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.06.016 23910572

35. Vagi KJ, O’Malley Olsen E, Basile KC, VIvilo-Kantor AM.) Teen dating violence (physical and sexual) among US high school students: findings from the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. JAMA Pediatrics. 2015; 169(5):474–82 doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3577 25730143

36. Otero-García L, Briones-Vozmediano E, Vives-Cases C, García-Quinto M, Sanz-Barbero B, Goicolea I () A qualitative study on primary health care responses to intimate partner violence during the economic crisis in Spain. European Journal of Public Health. 2018; 28(6):1000–5. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cky095 29917072

37. Mazur A, Brindis CD, Decker MJ. Assessing youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services: a systematic review. BMC Health Services Research. 2018; 18(1):216. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-2982-4 29587727

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden