Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa), hunting dogs, and hunters of Brazil

Autoři: Fernanda Pistori Machado aff001;  Louise Bach Kmetiuk aff002;  Pedro Irineu Teider-Junior aff001;  Maysa Pellizzaro aff003;  Ana Carolina Yamakawa aff004;  Camila Marinelli Martins aff005;  Renato van Wilpe Bach aff006;  Vívien Midori Morikawa aff007;  Ivan Roque de Barros-Filho aff001;  Hélio Langoni aff004;  Andrea Pires dos Santos aff008;  Alexander Welker Biondo aff001
Působiště autorů: Graduate College of Veterinary Science, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil aff001;  Graduate College of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil aff002;  Public Health Institute (PHI), Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil aff003;  Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil aff004;  Department of Nursing and Public Health, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil aff005;  Department of Medicine, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil aff006;  Department of Collective Health, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil aff007;  Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States of America aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article


Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively studied in wild boars worldwide due to the emerging risk for human infection through meat consumption. However, this is the first study that reports toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in wild boars, wild boar hunters and their hunting dogs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in the complex wild boars, hunting dogs and hunters, and to determine the risk factors associated with seropositivity in southern and central-western Brazil. Overall, anti-T. gondii seropositivity was observed in 15/71 (21.1%) wild boars by modified agglutination test (MAT); and 49/157 (31.2%) hunting dogs and 15/49 (32.7%) hunters by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Brazilian wild boars was within the national and international range, posting wild boars as potential environmental sentinels for T. gondii presence. In addition, the findings have comparatively shown that wild boars have been less exposed to infection than hunting dogs or hunters in both Brazilian regions. Seropositivity for T. gondii was statistically higher in 12/14 (85.7%) captured wild boars when compared to 5/57 (7.0%) free-range wild boars (p = 0.000001). Similarly, captured wild boars from anthropized areas were more likely to be seropositive than of natural regions (p = 0.000255). When in multiple regression model, dogs with the habit of wild boar hunting had significant more chance to be positive (adjusted-OR 4.62 CI 95% 1.16–18.42). Despite potential as sentinels of environmental toxoplasmosis, seroprevalence in wild boars alone may provide a biased basis for public health concerns; thus, hunters and hunting dogs should be always be included in such studies. Although hunters should be aware of potential T. gondii infection, wild boars from natural and agricultural areas may present lower protozoa load when compared to wild boars from anthropized areas, likely by the higher presence of domestic cats as definitive hosts.

Klíčová slova:

Brazil – Cats – Dogs – Domestic animals – Meat – Pets and companion animals – Swine – Toxoplasma gondii


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