Intestinal parasitic infection among household contacts of primary cases, a comparative cross-sectional study

Autoři: Berhanu Elfu Feleke aff001;  Melkamu Bedimo Beyene aff001;  Teferi Elfu Feleke aff002;  Tadesse Hailu Jember aff003;  Bayeh Abera aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Bahir Dar, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia aff001;  Department of Pediatrics, St Paul University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia aff002;  Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia aff003;  Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



Intestinal parasitic infection affects 3.5 billion people in the world and mostly affecting the low socio-economic groups. The objectives of this research works were to estimate the prevalence and determinants of intestinal parasitic infection among family members of known intestinal parasite infected patients.

Methods and materials

A comparative cross-sectional study design was implemented in the urban and rural settings of Mecha district. The data were collected from August 2017toMarch 2019 from intestinal parasite infected patient household members. Epi-info software was used to calculate the sample size, 4531 household members were estimated to be included. Data were collected using interview technique, and collecting stool samples from each household contact of intestinal parasite patients. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among known contacts of intestinal parasite patients/family members. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinant factors of intestinal parasitic infection among family members.


The prevalence of intestinal parasite among household contacts of intestinal parasite-infected family members was 86.14% [95% CI: 86.14% - 87.15%]. Hookworm infection was the predominant type of infection (18.8%). Intestinal parasitic infection was associated with sex, environmental sanitation, overcrowding, personal hygiene, residence, substandard house, role in the household, source of light for the house, trimmed fingernails, family size, regular handwashing practice. Protozoa infection was associated with habit of ingesting raw vegetable, playing with domestic animals, water source and the presence of household water filtering materials.


High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed among household contacts of primary cases.

Klíčová slova:

Helminth infections – Hygiene – Chickens – Intestinal parasites – Parasitic diseases – Parasitic intestinal diseases – Protozoans – Sanitation


1. Kaushik J, Baishya K, Sharma S, Sharma R. A REVIEW ON KRIMI ROGA IN CHILDREN WSR TO WORM INFESTATIONS. International Journal of Engineering Science and Generic Research. 2018;4(4).

2. Bhunia AK. Foodborne microbial pathogens: mechanisms and pathogenesis: Springer; 2018.

3. Bharti B, Bharti S, Khurana S. Worm infestation: Diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2018;85(11):1017–24. doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2505-z 29127616

4. Botero JH, Castaño A, Montoya MN, Ocampo NE, Hurtado MI, Lopera MM. A preliminary study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in immunocompromised patients with and without gastrointestinal manifestations. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2003;45(4):197–200. doi: 10.1590/s0036-46652003000400004 14502346

5. Truant AL, Elliott SH, Kelly MT, Smith JH. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites. Journal of clinical microbiology. 1981;13(5):882–4. 7240400

6. Saki J, Khademvatan S, Foroutan-Rad M, Gharibzadeh M. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Haftkel County, Southwest of Iran. Int J Infect. 2017;4(4):e15593. Epub 2016-06-01. doi: 10.5812/iji.15593

7. Farrell SH, Coffeng LE, Truscott JE, Werkman M, Toor J, de Vlas SJ, et al. Investigating the effectiveness of current and modified world health organization guidelines for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2018;66(suppl_4):S253–S9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy002 29860285

8. Dejon-Agobé JC, Zinsou JF, Honkpehedji YJ, Ateba-Ngoa U, Edoa J-R, Adegbite BR, et al. Schistosoma haematobium effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection modified by soil-transmitted helminths in school-age children living in rural areas of Gabon. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2018;12(8):e0006663. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006663 30080853

9. Chifunda K, Kelly P. Parasitic infections of the gut in children. Paediatrics and international child health. 2018:1–8.

10. Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, et al. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya. Tropical animal health and production. 2012;44 Suppl 1:S17–23. Epub 2012/08/07. doi: 10.1007/s11250-012-0203-4 22865349.

11. Fernandez-Nino JA, Astudillo-Garcia CI, Segura LM, Gomez N, Salazar AS, Tabares JH, et al. [Profiles of intestinal polyparasitism in a community of the Colombian Amazon region]. Biomedica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud. 2017;37(3):368–77. Epub 2017/10/03. doi: 10.7705/biomedica.v37i3.3395 28968014.

12. Faria CP, Zanini GM, Dias GS, da Silva S, de Freitas MB, Almendra R, et al. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(3):e0005445. Epub 2017/03/09. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005445 28273080; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5358884.

13. Ross AG, Olveda RM, McManus DP, Harn DA, Chy D, Li Y, et al. Risk factors for human helminthiases in rural Philippines. International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2017;54:150–5. Epub 2016/10/27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.09.025 27717859.

14. W AL-K, H AL-T, Al-khateeb A, Shanshal MM. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad—Iraq. Trop Biomed. 2014;31(3):499–506. Epub 2014/11/11. 25382477.

15. Tefera T, Mebrie G. Prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110621. Epub 2014/10/21. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110621 25329050; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4201565.

16. Schule SA, Clowes P, Kroidl I, Kowuor DO, Nsojo A, Mangu C, et al. Ascaris lumbricoides infection and its relation to environmental factors in the Mbeya region of Tanzania, a cross-sectional, population-based study. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92032. Epub 2014/03/20. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092032 24643023; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3958400.

17. Abera B, Alem G, Yimer M, Herrador Z. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and haematocrit values among schoolchildren in Ethiopia. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7(3):253–60. Epub 2013/03/16. doi: 10.3855/jidc.2539 23493004.

18. Wumba R, Longo-Mbenza B, Menotti J, Mandina M, Kintoki F, Situakibanza NH, et al. Epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients. International journal of general medicine. 2012;5:603–11. Epub 2012/08/28. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S32344 22924007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3422901.

19. Institute S. Methods in Parasitology. Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin solution method for stool specimen. Basel: Swiss TPH: Swiss Tropical Institute; 2005. p. 1–18.

20. Tékpa G, Fikouma V, Gbangba-Ngaï E, Bogning Mejiozem BO, Ningatouloum Nazita S, Koffi B. Epidemiological and clinical profile of intestinal parasitosis of children in rural areas in Central African Republic. Archives de Pédiatrie. 2019;26(1):34–7. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2018.11.006 30554848

21. Hamad M, Mokhtar A, Alameldin M. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school aged children in Berber locality, River Nile State, Sudan 2017. J Microbiol Exp. 2019;7(2):85–6.

22. Oboth P, Gavamukulya Y, Barugahare BJ. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic infections among children in Kiryandongo refugee camp, mid-Western Uganda: a cross sectional study. BMC infectious diseases. 2019;19(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3939-x 30935405

23. Waldram A, Vivancos R, Hartley C, Lamden K. Prevalence of Giardia infection in households of Giardia cases and risk factors for household transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):486. Epub 2017/07/12. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2586-3 28693557; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5504742.

24. Elfu Feleke B. Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection in the School-age Children: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study. Iranian journal of parasitology. 2018;13(4):560–6. Epub 2019/01/31. 30697309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6348213.

25. Oyemade A, Omokhodion FO, Olawuyi JF, Sridhar MK, Olaseha IO. Environmental and personal hygiene practices: risk factors for diarrhoea among children of Nigerian market women. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research. 1998:241–7. 10453121

26. Gizaw Z, Adane T, Azanaw J, Addisu A, Haile D. Childhood intestinal parasitic infection and sanitation predictors in rural Dembiya, northwest Ethiopia. Environmental health and preventive medicine. 2018;23(1):26. Epub 2018/06/24. doi: 10.1186/s12199-018-0714-3 29933747; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6015452.

27. McKenna ML, McAtee S, Bryan PE, Jeun R, Ward T, Kraus J, et al. Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97(5):1623–8. Epub 2017/10/11. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0396 29016326; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5817782.

28. Forson AO, Arthur I, Ayeh-Kumi PF. The role of family size, employment and education of parents in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Accra. PloS one. 2018;13(2):e0192303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192303 29415040

29. Zavala GA, García OP, Camacho M, Ronquillo D, Campos‐Ponce M, Doak C, et al. Intestinal parasites: Associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation. Parasite immunology. 2018;40(4):e12518. doi: 10.1111/pim.12518 29364525

30. Sarkar R, Kattula D, Francis MR, Ajjampur SS, Prabakaran AD, Jayavelu N, et al. Risk factors for cryptosporidiosis among children in a semi urban slum in southern India: a nested case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(6):1128–37. Epub 2014/10/22. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0304 25331810; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4257634.

31. Coker AO. Negative impacts of waste on human health and environment in Nigeria’s urban areas: innovative solutions to the rescue. Global Health Innovation. 2018;1(2). doi: 10.15641/ghi.v1i2.585

32. Cholapranee A, Ananthakrishnan AN. Environmental Hygiene and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2016;22(9):2191–9. Epub 2016/08/03. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000852 27482977; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4992453.

33. Leibler JH, Nguyen DD, Leon C, Gaeta JM, Perez D. Personal Hygiene Practices among Urban Homeless Persons in Boston, MA. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(8). Epub 2017/08/19. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14080928 28820454; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5580630.

34. Da Silva JB, Bossolani GD, Piva C, Dias GB, Gomes Ferreira J, Rossoni DF, et al. Spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in a Kaingang indigenous village from Southern Brazil. International journal of environmental health research. 2016;26(5–6):578–88. Epub 2016/08/20. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2016.1217312 27538355.

35. Crighton E, Gordon H, Barakat-Haddad C. Environmental health inequities: from global to local contexts. Routledge Handbook of Health Geography: Routledge; 2018. p. 59–66.

36. Steinbaum L, Mboya J, Mahoney R, Njenga SM, Null C, Pickering AJ. Effect of a sanitation intervention on soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and concentration in household soil: A cluster-randomized controlled trial and risk factor analysis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2019;13(2):e0007180. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007180 30742614

37. Feleke BE, Jember TH. Prevalence of helminthic infections and determinant factors among pregnant women in Mecha district, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):373. Epub 2018/08/08. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3291-6 30081837; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6080381.

38. Means AR, van Lieshout L, Brienen E, Yuhas K, Hughes JP, Ndungu P, et al. Combined effectiveness of anthelmintic chemotherapy and WASH among HIV-infected adults. PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2018;12(1):e0005955. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005955 29346385

39. Feleke BE. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. International journal of pediatrics. 2016;2016:1962128. Epub 2016/09/23. doi: 10.1155/2016/1962128 27656219; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5021489.

40. Zheng H, He J, Wang L, Zhang R, Ding Z, Hu W. Risk Factors and Spatial Clusters of Cryptosporidium Infection among School-Age Children in a Rural Region of Eastern China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(5):924.

41. Ybañez RHD, Resuelo KJG, Kintanar APM, Ybañez AP. Detection of gastrointestinal parasites in small-scale poultry layer farms in Leyte, Philippines. Veterinary world. 2018;11(11):1587. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1587-1591 30587893

42. Strunz EC, Addiss DG, Stocks ME, Ogden S, Utzinger J, Freeman MC. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS medicine. 2014;11(3):e1001620. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001620 24667810

43. Amoah ID, Reddy P, Seidu R, Stenström TA. Removal of helminth eggs by centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho: health implications for direct and indirect exposure to the effluents. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018:1–13.

44. Luong L, Chambers J, Moizis A, Stock T, Clair CS. Helminth parasites and zoonotic risk associated with urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. Journal of helminthology. 2018:1–5.

45. Sarvi S, Daryani A, Sharif M, Rahimi MT, Kohansal MH, Mirshafiee S, et al. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran. Veterinary world. 2018;11(1):58. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.58-65 29479158

46. Ignacio CF, Silva M, Handam NB, Alencar MFL, Sotero-Martins A, Barata MML, et al. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2017;59:e56. Epub 2017/08/10. doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946201759056 28793024; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5553943.

47. Abd Ellatif N, Mohamed M, El-Taweel H, Hamam M, Saudi M. Intestinal protozoa in diarrheic children in an Egyptian rural area: Role of water contamination and other possible risk factors. Parasitologists United Journal. 2018;11(2):82–9.

48. Ugbomeh A, Goodhead D, Green A, Onwuteaka J. Prevalence of Human Intestinal Nematode Parasites in Three Rural Communities of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. 2018.

49. Mohanty A, Gupta P, Gupta P, Prasad RS. Diagnostic Dilemma in Hookworm Infection: An Unusual Presentation. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2018;7(3):3769–71.

50. Worrell CM, Wiegand RE, Davis SM, Odero KO, Blackstock A, Cuéllar VM, et al. A cross-sectional study of water, sanitation, and hygiene-related risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infection in urban school-and preschool-aged children in Kibera, Nairobi. PloS one. 2016;11(3):e0150744. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150744 26950552

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden