Elucidating stygofaunal trophic web interactions via isotopic ecology


Autoři: Mattia Saccò aff001;  Alison J. Blyth aff001;  William F. Humphreys aff002;  Alison Kuhl aff004;  Debashish Mazumder aff005;  Colin Smith aff006;  Kliti Grice aff001
Působiště autorů: WA-Organic Isotope Geochemistry Centre, The Institute for Geoscience Research, School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA (Australia) aff001;  Collections and Research Centre, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, 6986, WA (Australia) aff002;  School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia) aff003;  Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom aff004;  Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia) aff005;  Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia) aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223982

Souhrn

Subterranean ecosystems host highly adapted aquatic invertebrate biota which play a key role in sustaining groundwater ecological functioning and hydrological dynamics. However, functional biodiversity studies in groundwater environments, the main source of unfrozen freshwater on Earth, are scarce, probably due to the cryptic nature of the systems. To address this, we investigate groundwater trophic ecology via stable isotope analysis, employing δ13C and δ15N in bulk tissues, and amino acids. Specimens were collected from a shallow calcrete aquifer in the arid Yilgarn region of Western Australia: a well-known hot-spot for stygofaunal biodiversity. Sampling campaigns were carried out during dry (low rainfall: LR) and the wet (high rainfall: HR) periods. δ13C values indicate that most of the stygofauna shifted towards more 13C-depleted carbon sources under HR, suggesting a preference for fresher organic matter. Conversion of δ15N values in glutamic acid and phenylalanine to a trophic index showed broadly stable trophic levels with organisms clustering as low-level secondary consumers. However, mixing models indicate that HR conditions trigger changes in dietary preferences, with increasing predation of amphipods by beetle larvae. Overall, stygofauna showed a tendency towards opportunistic and omnivorous habits—typical of an ecologically tolerant community—shaped by bottom-up controls linked with changes in carbon flows. This study provides baseline biochemical and ecological data for stygofaunal trophic interactions in calcretes. Further studies on the carbon inputs and taxa-specific physiology will help refine the interpretation of the energy flows shaping biodiversity in groundwaters. This will aid understanding of groundwater ecosystem functioning and allow modelling of the impact of future climate change factors such as aridification.

Klíčová slova:

Amino acid analysis – Beetles – Copepods – Food web structure – Larvae – Predation – Stable isotopes – Trophic interactions


Zdroje

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