Geospatial correlates of early marriage and union formation in Ghana

Autoři: Fiifi Amoako Johnson aff001;  Mumuni Abu aff002;  Chigozie Edson Utazi aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Population and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana aff001;  Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana aff002;  WorldPop and Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute (S3RI), University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article


The practice of early marriage, although acknowledged as a human rights violation, continues to occur in many countries. Different studies have identified the associated factors in many developing countries. However, these factors often assume no geographical variation in these factors within countries. Again, cultural practices and beliefs which strongly influence the acceptance and practices of early marriage vary geographically. In addition, geographic clusters of high rates of early marriage and union formation are also unknown. Thus, area specific correlates of early child marriage are required for the development of location specific policies to aid the eradication of early child marriage. Using data from the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census, this study examines the extent of geospatial clustering in early marriage amongst girls and their spatially-varying associated factors at the district level. The findings reveal strong clustering of high early marriage amongst districts in the Upper West, Northern and Volta regions. Nationally, 6.96% (CI = 6.83, 7.08) of girls are married or in union before their 18th birthday. The estimates range from 2.7% in the Jaman North district in Brong Ahafo region to 19.0% in the Gushiegu district in Northern region. Economic factors were observed as important spatially-varying associated factors. The findings suggest that targeted interventions are required in the effort to eradicate the practice in Ghana.

Klíčová slova:

Census – Disabilities – Economics – Economics of training and education – Ghana – Labor economics – Religion


1. UNICEF. (2014). Ending Child Marriage: Progress and prospects. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.

2. UNFPA & UNICEF. (2017). Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage. Progress Report 2016. New York: United Nations Fund for Population Activities, United Nations Children’s Fund. [Accessed: 24/01/2018].

3. International Plan. (2013). A girl’s right to say no to marriage:. Surrey: PlAN.

4. OAU. (1990). African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Addis Ababa: Organisation of African Unity.

5. Maswikwa B., Richter L., Kaufman J., & Nandi A. (2015). Minimum Marriage Age Laws and the Prevalence Of Child Marriage and Adolescent Birth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 58–68. doi: 10.1363/4105815 26308258

6. UNICEF. (2015). A Profile of Child Marriage in Africa. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.

7. UNFPA. (2012). Marrying Too Young End Child Marriage. New York: United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

8. PRB. (2011). Who speaks for me: Ending child marriage fact sheet. New York: Population Reference Bureau.

9. Kamal Mostafa S. M., Hassan C. H., Mahabubul Alam G., & Ying Y. (2015). Child marriage in bangladesh: trends and determinants. Journal of Biosocial Science, 47, 120–139. doi: 10.1017/S0021932013000746 24480489

10. Republic of Ghana. (1992). Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, 1992.

11. GSS. (2013). 2010 Population and Housing Census. National Analytical Report. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service. [assessed 26/10/2017]

12. GSS, GHS & ICF International. (2015). Ghana Demographic Health Survey 2014. Rockville: Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana Health Service and ICF International.

13. GSS. (2011). Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey with an Enhanced Malaria Module and Biomarker, 2011. Final Report. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service. [assessed 01/02/2018].

14. Bruce J., & Clark S. (2004). The implication of Early marriage for HIV?AIDs Policy. New York: New York Population Council.

15. Clark S., Bruce J., & Dude A. (2006). Protecting Young Women from HIV/AIDS: The Case against Child and Adolescent Marriage. International Family Planning Perspectives, 32, 79–88. doi: 10.1363/ifpp.32.079.06 16837388

16. Butt K. M., & Naveed S. (2015). Causes and Consequences of Child Marriages in South Asia:Pakistan’s Perspective. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, 161–175.

17. Nasrullah M., Zaka R., Zakar M. Z., Abbas S., & Safdar R. (2015). Circumstances leading to intimate partner violence against women married as children:a qualitative study in Urban Slums of Lahore, Pakistan. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s12914-015-0041-3

18. Birech J. (2013). Child Marriage: A Cultural Health Phenomenon. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 97–102.

19. Walker J.A. (2012). Early Marriage in Africa- Trends, Harmful Effects and Interventions. African Journal of Reproductive (special Edition);16, 231–239.

20. World Health Organization. (2011). Guideline on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive health outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. Geneva: WHO.

21. MoGCSP & UNICEF (2016). National Strategic Framework on Ending Child Marriage in Ghana 2017–2026. Accra: Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection and United Nations Children Fund. [Assessed: 09/11/2017].

22. GSS. (2012). 2010 Population and Housing Census. Summary Report of Final Results. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service: [assessed 26/10/2017].

23. The Parliament of the Republic of Ghana. (1998). The Children’s Act, 1998: the five hundred and sixtieth act. Accra: The Parliament of the Republic of Ghana. [Assessed: 28/06/2018].

24. Kopelman L. M. (2016). The Forced Marriage of Minors: A Neglected Form of Child Abuse. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, 173–181. doi: 10.1177/1073110516644208 27256133

25. Nasrullah M., Muazzam S., Bhutta Z. A., & Raj A. (2014). Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006–2007. Matern Child Health J, 534–543. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1269-y 23580067

26. Abdullah S., Qureshi H., & Quayes S. (2015). The Adverse Effect of Child Marriage on Women’s Economic Well Being in Bangladesh–Can Microfinance Help? The Journal of Developing Areas 49, 109–125.

27. Kneib T., & Tutz G. (2010). Statistical Modelling and Regression Structures. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

28. Hoeting J.A., Davis R.A., Merton A.A., & Thompson S.E. (2006). Model selection for geostatistical models. Ecological Applications, 16, 87–98. doi: 10.1890/04-0576 16705963

29. Lee H., & Ghosh S.K. (2009). Performance of information criteria for spatial models. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 79, 93–106. doi: 10.1080/00949650701611143 19746199

30. Wagenmakers E-J., & Farrell S. (2004). AIC model selection using Akaike weights. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 192–196.

31. Umlauf N., Adler D., Kneib T., Lang S., & Zeileis A. (2015). Structured Additive Regression Models: An R Interface to BayesX. Journal of Statistical Software 63 (21).

32. Wheeler D., and Tiefelsdorf M. (2005). Multicollinearity and correlation among local regression coefficients in geographically weighted regression. Journal of Geographical Systems, 7: 161–187.

33. Austin M. (2007). Species distribution models and ecological theory: a critical assessment and some possible new approaches. Ecological Modelling, 200: 1–19.

34. Duarte-Cunha M, de Almeida AS, da Cunha GM and Souza-Santos R. (2016). Geographic weighted regression: applicability to epidemiological studies of leprosy. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 49(1):74–82. doi: 10.1590/0037-8682-0307-2015 27163567

35. Parsons J., Edmeades J., Kes A., Petroni S., Sexton M., & Wodon Q. (2015). Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: A Review of the Literature. The Review of Faith & International Affairs 13, 12–22.

36. Alhassan E. (2013). Early marriage of young females: A panacea to poverty in the northern region of Ghana. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(12), 18–30.

37. Ghana WiLDAF. (2014). Scoping study for Parliamentary Advocacy Programme on Combating Early and Forced Marriage in Ghana. Submitted to Parliamentarians for Global Action. Accra: Ghana.

38. UG-CSPS and World Vision Ghana. (2017). A Study on Child Marriage in selected World Vision Ghana Operational Areas. University of Ghana Centre for Social Policy Studies and World Vision Ghana. Accra: Ghana.

39. Svanemyr J., Chandra-Mouli V., Christiansen C.S., & Mbizvo M. (2012). Preventing child marriages: First international day of the girl child “my life, my right, end child marriage”. Reproductive Health, 9(1): 31.

40. UNICEF. (2008). Child marriage and Law: Legislative reform initiative paper. New York: United Nations Internal Children's Fund (UNICEF).

41. Gemignani R., Wodon Q. (2015). Child Marriage and Faith Affiliation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stylized Facts and Heterogeneity. The Review of Faith & International Affairs, 13, 14–47.

42. Thomas F., Renaud F., Benefice E., Meeüs T.D., and Guegan J-F. (2001). International Variability of Ages at Menarche and Menopause: Patterns and Main Determinants. Human Biology, 73, 271–290. 11446429

43. Tsekpo K., Afram A., Boateng E.S., and Sefa-Nyarko C. (2014). Child Marriage in Ghana’s Fishing Industry: Analysing the experiences of children who have witnessed or undergone child marriage in the Volta Lake communities. Challenging Heights and Participatory Development Associates.

44. UNICEF. (2005). Early marriage a harmful traditional practice. new york: United Nations Children’s Fund.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden