Effects of insecticides, fipronil and imidacloprid, on the growth, survival, and behavior of brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus

Autoři: Ali Abdulameer Al-Badran aff001;  Masami Fujiwara aff001;  Miguel A. Mora aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223641


Increased use of pesticide is causing detrimental effects on non-target species worldwide. In this study, we examined the lethal and sub-lethal effects of fipronil and imidacloprid, two commonly used insecticides, on juvenile brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus), one of the most commercially and ecologically important species in the United States. The effects of six concentrations of fipronil (0.0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 μg/L) and six concentrations of imidacloprid (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 15.0, 34.5, 320.0 μg/L) were tested in a laboratory. We examined five different endpoints: growth, moulting interval, survivorship, behavioral change, and body color change. Growth of shrimp was reduced significantly under higher concentrations of both insecticides. Under fipronil exposure, shrimp in control showed the shortest inter-moult interval (7.57 ± 2.17 day) compared with other treatments; similarly, in the imidacloprid experiment, moulting increased from 8.43 ± 2.52 day in control to 11.95 ± 4.9 day in 0.5 μg/L treatment. Higher concentrations of fipronil (1.0 and 3.0 μg/L) showed a 0.0% survival rate compared with 100% survival in the control and 0.005 μg/L treatment. Under imidacloprid, survivorship decreased from 100% in the control to 33.33% in the 320.0 μg/L treatment. The 96-h LC50 of fipronil was 0.12 μg/L, which makes brown shrimp one of the most sensitive invertebrates to the pesticide. Changes in behavior and body color were observed under both insecticides after different durations of exposures depending on concentrations. We conclude that, at the corresponding EPA benchmark concentrations, fipronil had more lethal effects than imidacloprid, and imidacloprid had more sub-lethal effects than fipronil. Both effects are of serious concern, and we suggest monitoring is necessary in estuaries.

Klíčová slova:

Insecticides – Invertebrates – Molting – Pest control – Pesticides – Shrimp – Water quality – Weight gain


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