Effects of dietary intake and nutritional status on cerebral oxygenation in patients with chronic kidney disease not undergoing dialysis: A cross-sectional study

Autoři: Susumu Ookawara aff001;  Yoshio Kaku aff001;  Kiyonori Ito aff001;  Kanako Kizukuri aff002;  Aiko Namikawa aff002;  Shinobu Nakahara aff002;  Yuko Horiuchi aff002;  Nagisa Inose aff002;  Mayako Miyahara aff002;  Michiko Shiina aff002;  Saori Minato aff001;  Mitsutoshi Shindo aff001;  Haruhisa Miyazawa aff001;  Keiji Hirai aff001;  Taro Hoshino aff001;  Miho Murakoshi aff002;  Kaoru Tabei aff003;  Yoshiyuki Morishita aff001
Působiště autorů: Division of Nephrology, First Department of Integrated Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan aff001;  Department of Nutrition, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan aff002;  Department of Internal Medicine, Minami-uonuma City Hospital, Niigata, Japan aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223605



Dietary management is highly important for the maintenance of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) was reportedly associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cognitive function. However, data concerning the association between cerebral rSO2 and dietary intake of CKD patients is limited.


This was a single-center observational study. We recruited 67 CKD patients not undergoing dialysis. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored using the INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor. Energy intake was evaluated by dietitians based on 3-day meal records. Daily protein and salt intakes were calculated from 24-h urine collection.


Multivariable regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 was independently associated with energy intake (standardized coefficient: 0.370) and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.236) in Model 1 using parameters with p < 0.10 in simple linear regression analysis (body mass index, Hb level, serum albumin concentration, salt and energy intake) and confounding factors (eGFR, serum sodium concentration, protein intake), and the energy/salt index (standardized coefficient: 0.343) and Hb level (standardized coefficient: 0.284) in Model 2 using energy/protein index as indicated by energy intake/protein intake and energy/salt index by energy intake/salt intake in place of salt, protein and energy intake.


Cerebral rSO2 is affected by energy intake, energy/salt index, serum albumin concentration and Hb level. Sufficient energy intake and adequate salt restriction is important to prevent deterioration of cerebral oxygenation, which might contribute to the maintenance of cognitive function in addition to the prevention of renal dysfunction in CKD patients.

Klíčová slova:

Chronic kidney disease – Linear regression analysis – Oxygen – Renal system – Serum albumin – Serum proteins – Urine – Sodium chloride


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