Particularly neglected in countries with other challenges: High Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women in Kabul, Afghanistan, while a low proportion know about the parasite


Autoři: Sayed Hussain Mosawi aff001;  Zahra Zarghona aff004;  Abdolhossein Dalimi aff005;  Pikka Jokelainen aff006;  Ahmad Hosseini Safa aff001;  Mohammad Reza Mohammadi aff001;  Erfan Javanmardi aff001;  Mohammad Baqer Basirat aff008
Působiště autorů: Medical Sciences Research Center, Ghalib University, Kabul, Afghanistan aff001;  Faculty of Medicine, Khatam Al Nabieen University, Ghazni, Afghanistan aff002;  Department of Infectious Diseases, Afghanistan National Charity Organization for Special Diseases, Kabul, Afghanistan aff003;  Faculty of Medicine, Khatam Al Nabieen University, Kabul, Afghanistan aff004;  Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran aff005;  Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Bacteria, Parasites & Fungi, Infectious Disease Preparedness, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark aff006;  Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran aff007;  Medical Laboratory Department, French Medical Institute for Children, Kabul, Afghanistan aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223585

Souhrn

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease of global importance. It is widespread and endemic practically all over the world, with infection prevalence varying by geographic location. The parasite and the disease are neglected, which is illustrated by the lack of baseline information on the prevalence from many regions. Developed, peaceful regions are in better situation to address toxoplasmosis, while the neglected status is particularly pronounced in regions with other challenges. Due to the lack of baseline data, these regions are rarely mentioned in discussions about the neglected status of the disease. A dramatic manifestation of toxoplasmosis, congenital toxoplasmosis, is the dreaded outcome of vertical transmission of the infection from the mother to the unborn child. For this reason, pregnant women are a key target group for primary prevention of T. gondii infections, and baseline data on the prevalence in pregnant women is important. In this cross-sectional seroepidemiological study, we estimated Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and evaluated possible risk factors for seropositivity in pregnant women in Kabul, Afghanistan. Altogether 207 of the 431 women included in the study tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii, yielding an apparent seroprevalence estimate of 48.03% (95% CI 43.33–52.75). Based on the final multivariable model for T. gondii seropositivity, non-concrete floor in the house and well or river as water source were identified as risk factors for seropositivity, while residence in rural area was a protective factor. The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported that they did not know about T. gondii. Our study is the first to report an estimate of T. gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women in Afghanistan. The high seroprevalence indicates substantial infection pressure, and the results of the risk factor analysis suggest that the environmental route, infection from oocysts, might be the most relevant to address to prevent the infections in the region. Our results contribute to the global discussion on neglected status of toxoplasmosis.

Klíčová slova:

Meat – Medical risk factors – Parasitic diseases – Pregnancy – Protozoan infections – Surface water – Toxoplasma gondii – Toxoplasmosis


Zdroje

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Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10

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