A localized sanitation status index as a proxy for fecal contamination in urban Maputo, Mozambique

Autoři: Drew Capone aff001;  Zaida Adriano aff002;  David Berendes aff004;  Oliver Cumming aff005;  Robert Dreibelbis aff005;  David A. Holcomb aff006;  Jackie Knee aff001;  Ian Ross aff005;  Joe Brown aff001
Působiště autorů: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff001;  WE Consult, Maputo, Mozambique aff002;  Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique aff003;  Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff004;  Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom aff005;  Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224333


Sanitary surveys are used in low- and middle-income countries to assess water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions, but have rarely been compared with direct measures of environmental fecal contamination. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of sanitary conditions and E. coli counts in soils and on surfaces of compounds (household clusters) in low-income neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique. We adapted the World Bank’s Urban Sanitation Status Index to implement a sanitary survey tool specifically for compounds: a Localized Sanitation Status Index (LSSI) ranging from zero (poor sanitary conditions) to one (better sanitary conditions) calculated from 20 variables that characterized local sanitary conditions. We measured the variation in the LSSI with E. coli counts in soil (nine locations/compound) and surface swabs (seven locations/compound) in 80 compounds to assess reliability. Multivariable regression indicated that a ten-percentage point increase in LSSI was associated with 0.05 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.11) log10 fewer E. coli/dry gram in courtyard soil. Overall, the LSSI may be associated with fecal contamination in compound soil; however, the differences detected may not be meaningful in terms of public health hazards.

Klíčová slova:

Bacterial pathogens – Chicken models – Chickens – Sanitation – Sunlight – Surveys – Urban environments – Ducks


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