An examination of the Kuleshov effect using still photographs

Autoři: John Mullennix aff001;  Jeremy Barber aff001;  Trista Cory aff001
Působiště autorů: University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstown, PA, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article


The goal of the present study was to examine whether the effect of visual context on the interpretation of facial expression from an actor’s face could be produced using isolated photographic stills, instead of the typical dynamic film sequences used to demonstrate the effect. Two-photograph sequences consisting of a context photograph varying in pleasantness and a photograph of an actor’s neutral face were presented. Participants performed a liking rating task for the context photograph (to ensure attention to the stimulus) and they performed three tasks for the face stimulus: labeling the emotion portrayed by the actor, rating valence, and rating arousal. The results of the labeling data confirmed the existence of a visual context effect, with more faces labeled as “happy” after viewing pleasant context and more faces labeled “sad” or “fearful” after viewing unpleasant context. This effect was demonstrated when no explicit connection between the context stimulus and face stimulus was invoked, with the contextual information exerting its effect on labeling after being held in memory for at least 10 seconds. The results for ratings of valence and arousal were mixed. Overall, the results suggest that isolated photograph sequences produce a Kuleshov-type context effect on attributions of emotion to actors’ faces, replicating previous research conducted with dynamic film sequences.

Klíčová slova:

Analysis of variance – Cognition – Emotions – Face – Fear – Happiness – Memory – Sequence databases


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2019 Číslo 10
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