Economic sanctions and academia: Overlooked impact and long-term consequences

Autoři: Louise Bezuidenhout aff001;  Ola Karrar aff002;  Javier Lezaun aff001;  Andy Nobes aff003
Působiště autorů: Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom aff001;  Department of Statistics, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan aff002;  INASP, Oxford, England, United Kingdom aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222669


Financial sanctions are often thought of as the “soft alternative” to armed conflict and are widely used in the 21st century. Nonetheless, sanctions are often criticized for being non-specific in their action, and having impact beyond their intended remit. One often-overlooked area affected by sanctions are academic systems of research and education. Sanctions place “invisible barriers” for research in these countries by limiting access to necessary resources and curtailing their effective use. In this paper we present a national survey of Sudanese academics focused on the impact of 20 years of economic sanctions on their work. It identifies key areas of academic research and education that have been impacted by international sanctions. Moreover, these data highlight how the impact of sanctions on academia is likely to persist long after they are formally lifted. The paper concludes by problematising the current interpretation of jus post bellum, or moral behaviour after conflict. It suggests that the responsibility to make reparations in the form of support for academic systems applies to countries who impose economic sanctions.

Klíčová slova:

Economics – Equipment – Finance – Government funding of science – Research grants – Sudan – Surveys – Economic impact analysis


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Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10