Spectral measure of color variation of black-orange-black (BOB) pattern in small parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), a statistical approach


Autoři: Rebeca Mora-Castro aff001;  Marcela Hernández-Jiménez aff002;  Marcela Alfaro-Córdoba aff005;  Esteban Avendano aff002;  Paul Hanson-Snortum aff003
Působiště autorů: Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica aff001;  Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica aff002;  Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica aff003;  Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica aff004;  Centro de Investigación en Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica aff005;  Escuela de Estadística, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218061

Souhrn

Small parasitoid wasps are abundant and extremely diverse, yet their colors have not been analyzed. One of the more common color patterns observed in these wasps is a black-orange-black pattern, which is especially common among neotropical species of Scelionidae ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. Due to the methodological challenges involved in extracting and analyzing pigments from small-sized insects, other methods for examining colors need to be explored. In this work, we propose the use of microspectrophotometry in combination with statistical analysis methods in order to 8 study the spectral properties in such cases. We examined 8 scelionid genera and 1 genus from a distantly related family (Evaniidae), all showing the black-orange-black pattern. Functional Data Analysis and statistical analysis of Euclidean distances for color components were applied to study color differences both between and within genera. The Functional Data Analysis proved to be a better method for treating the reflectance data because it gave a better representation of the physical information. Also, the reflectance spectra were separated into spectral color component contributions and each component was labeled according to its own dominant wavelength at the maximum of the spectrum: Red, Green and Blue. When comparing spectral components curves, the spectral blue components of the orange and black colors, independent of the genera being compared, result almost identical, suggesting that there is a common compound for the pigments. The results also suggest that cuticle from different genera, but with the same color might have a similar chemical composition. This is the first time that the black and orange colors in small parasitoid wasps has been analyzed and our results provide a basis for future research on the color patterns of an abundant but neglected group of insects.

Klíčová slova:

Animal phylogenetics – Hymenoptera – Chemical composition – Insects – Pigments – Statistical data – Wasps – Microspectrophotometry


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Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10