The impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking among high school and university students in Ethiopia: A systemic review and meta-analysis


Autoři: Cheru Tesema Leshargie aff001;  Animut Alebel aff001;  Getiye Dejenu Kibret aff001;  Molla Yigzaw Birhanu aff001;  Henok Mulugeta aff001;  Patricia Malloy aff002;  Fasil Wagnew aff001;  Atsede Alle Ewunetie aff001;  Daniel Bekele Ketema aff001;  Alehegn Aderaw aff001;  Moges Agazhe Assemie aff001;  Getachew Mullu Kassa aff001;  Pammla Petrucka aff003;  Amit Arora aff005
Působiště autorů: College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia aff001;  Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, Canada aff002;  Colleges of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada aff003;  School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha City, Tanzania aff004;  School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia aff005;  Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia aff006;  Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia aff007;  Oral Health Services, Sydney Local Health District and Sydney Dental Hospital, NSW Health, Surry Hills, NSW, Australia aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222572

Souhrn

Background

Cigarettes and their by-products (i.e., smoke; ash) are a complex, dynamic, and reactive mixture of around 5,000 chemicals. Cigarette smoking potentially harms nearly every organ of the human body, causes innumerable diseases, and impacts the health of smokers and those interacting with the smokers. Smoking brings greater health problems in the long-term like increased risk of stroke and brain damage. For students, peer pressure is one of the key factors contributing to cigarette smoking. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking among high school and university students in Ethiopia.

Methods

An extensive search of key databases including Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Embase and Science Direct was conducted to identify and access articles published on the prevalence of cigarette smoking by high school and university students in Ethiopia. The search period for articles was conducted from 21st September, 2018 to 25th December 25, 2018. All necessary data were extracted using a standardized data extraction checklist. Quality and risk of bias of studies were assessed using standardized tools. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using Cochrane Q-test statistic and I2 test. To estimate the pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking, a random effects model was fitted. The impact of peer pressure on cigarette smoking was determined and was reported in Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata software.

Results

From 175 searched articles, 19 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of cigarette smoking among Ethiopian high school and university students was 15.9% (95% CI: 12.21, 19.63). Slightly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking was noted among university students [17.35% (95% CI: 13.21, 21.49)] as compared to high school students [12.77% (95% CI: 6.72%, 18.82%)]. The current aggregated meta-analysis revealed that peer pressure had a significant influence on cigarette smoking (OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 2.37, 3.03).

Conclusion

More than one sixth of the high school and university students in Ethiopia smoke cigarette. Students who had peer pressure from their friends were more likely to smoke cigarette. Therefore, school-based intervention programs are needed to reduce the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among students in Ethiopia.

Klíčová slova:

Amhara people – Database searching – Ethiopia – Metaanalysis – Publication ethics – Schools – Smoking habits – Systematic reviews


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