E-MOVIE - Experimental MOVies for Induction of Emotions in neuroscience: An innovative film database with normative data and sex differences

Autoři: Antonio Maffei aff001;  Alessandro Angrilli aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy aff001;  CNR Neuroscience Institute, Section of Padova, Padova, Italy aff002;  PNC–Padova Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Padova, Italy aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223124


The need for a validated set of emotional clips to elicit emotions in more ecological experiments is increasing. Here we present the validation of a new database of emotional films, named E-MOVIE, which includes, in this first validation phase, 39 excerpts arranged in six categories, three negative (Fear, Sadness and Compassion), two positive (Erotic and Scenery) and a Neutral category. Notably, Compassion and Scenery are new in the field as they were not included in other databases. The clips in E-MOVIE are characterized by homogenous durations of approximately two minutes, which make them suitable for psychophysiological research. In order to study the affective profile prompted by each category 174 participants (112 women) rated the movies on multiple dimensions, namely valence and arousal, intensity and discreteness of the induction of one of the six basic emotions and, finally, intensity of the experience of the emotional states defined by a series of emotional adjectives. Erotic clips were effective in the elicitation of a positive emotional state, characterized by high levels of arousal and excitement. On the other hand, Fear clips (selected without blood to avoid disgust reaction) prompted an affect characterized by high arousal, low valence and high levels of reported fear and anxiety. Women reported greater unpleasantness, distress, anxiety and jittery than men to the three negative categories. Compassion clips, characterized by the depiction of crying characters, were able to induce an affective state dominated by sadness and feeling touched, consistent with an empathic reaction to emotional sufferance. Sadness clips, instead, elicited an affective state characterized by sadness together with distress and angst. We also demonstrated that clips depicting natural environments (i.e. Scenery) prompted in the viewer a surprised, inspired affective state, characterized by high valence and arousal (especially in males), a result which suggests that their past categorization as neutral stimuli was inaccurate and problematic.

Klíčová slova:

Analysis of variance – Anxiety – Blood – Emotions – Fear – Happiness – Prosocial behavior – Planets


1. Rottenberg J, Ray RD, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment Series in affective science. 2007. p. 2–28.

2. Bradley MM, Lang PJ. The International Affective Digitized Sounds (2nd Edition; IADS-2): Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida; 2007.

3. Felnhofer A, Kothgassner OD, Schmidt M, Heinzle AK, Beutl L, Hlavacs H, et al. Is virtual reality emotionally arousing? Investigating five emotion inducing virtual park scenarios. Int J Hum Comput Stud. 2015;82:48–56.

4. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. International affective picture system (IAPS): Instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-2. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida; 1999.

5. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. International affective picture system (IAPS): Instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-2. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida; 1999.

6. Zentner M, Grandjean D, Scherer KR. Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement. Emotion. 2008;8(4):494–521. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.4.494 18729581

7. De Cesarei A, Loftus GR, Mastria S, Codispoti M. Understanding natural scenes: Contributions of image statistics. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;74:44–57. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.01.012 28089884

8. Ekman P, Friesen W. Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychology Press; 1976.

9. Lundqvist D, Flykt A, Öhman A. The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces—KDEF, CD ROM from Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychology section. Karolinska Institut, ISBN 91-630-7164-9. 1998;

10. Marchewka A, Zurawski L, Jednoróg K, Grabowska A. The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS): Introduction to a novel, standardized, wide-range, high-quality, realistic picture database. Behav Res Methods. 2014;46(2):596–610. doi: 10.3758/s13428-013-0379-1 23996831

11. Westermann R, Stahl G, Hesse FW. Relative effectiveness and validity of mood induction procedures: a meta-analysis. Eur J Soc Psychol. 1996;26:557–80.

12. Schaefer A, Nils F, Sanchez X, Philippot P. Assessing the effectiveness of a large database of emotion-eliciting films: A new tool for emotion researchers. Cogn Emot. 2010;24(7):1153–72.

13. Philippot P. Inducing and assessing differentiated emotion-feeling states in the laboratory. Cogn Emot. 1993 Mar 7;7(2):171–93. doi: 10.1080/02699939308409183 27102736

14. Gross JJ, Levenson RW. Emotion elicitation using films. Cogn Emot. 1995 Jan;9(1):87–108.

15. Gabert-Quillen CA, Bartolini EE, Abravanel BT, Sanislow CA. Ratings for emotion film clips. Behav Res Methods. 2015;47(3):773–87. doi: 10.3758/s13428-014-0500-0 24984981

16. Gilman TL, Shaheen R, Nylocks KM, Halachoff D, Chapman J, Flynn JJ, et al. A film set for the elicitation of emotion in research: A comprehensive catalog derived from four decades of investigation. Behav Res Methods. 2017 Jan 11;1–22. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015-0685-x

17. Jenkins LM, Andrewes DG. A New Set of Standardised Verbal and Non-verbal Contemporary Film Stimuli for the Elicitation of Emotions. Brain Impair. 2012;13(2):212–27.

18. Samson AC, Kreibig SD, Soderstrom B, Wade AA, Gross JJ. Eliciting positive, negative and mixed emotional states: A film library for affective scientists. Cogn Emot. 2015;30(5):827–56. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2015.1031089 25929696

19. von Leupoldt A, Rohde J, Beregova A, Thordsen-Sörensen I, zur Nieden J, Dahme B. Films for eliciting emotional states in children. Behav Res Methods. 2007;39(3):606–9. 17958174

20. Sternbach RA. Assessing differential autonomic patterns in emotions. J Psychosom Res. 1962;6(2):87–91.

21. Kreibig SD. Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review. Biol Psychol. 2010;84:14–41

22. Golland Y, Keissar K, Levit‐Binnun N. Studying the dynamics of autonomic activity during emotional experience. Psychophysiology. 2014;51(11):1101–1111. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12261 25039415

23. Golland Y, Hakim A, Aloni T, Schaefer S, Levit-Binnun N. Affect dynamics of facial EMG during continuous emotional experiences. Biol Psychol. 2018;139:47–58. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.10.003 30300673

24. Carvalho S, Leite J, Galdo-Álvarez S, Gonçalves ÓF. The emotional movie database (EMDB): A self-report and psychophysiological study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2012;37(4):279–94. doi: 10.1007/s10484-012-9201-6 22767079

25. Hewig J, Hagemann D, Seifert J, Gollwitzer M, Naumann E, Bartussek D. A revised film set for the induction of basic emotions. Cogn Emot. 2005;19(7):1095–109.

26. Frijda NH. Aesthetic emotions and reality. Am Psychol. 1989;44(12):1546–7.

27. Ekman P. An argument for basic emotions. Cogn Emot. 1992;6(3):169–200.

28. Palomba D, Sarlo M, Angrilli A, Mini A, Stegagno L. Cardiac responses associated with affective processing of unpleasant film stimuli. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000;36(1):45–57. doi: 10.1016/s0167-8760(99)00099-9 10700622

29. Sarlo M, Buodo G, Poli S, Palomba D. Changes in EEG alpha power to different disgust elicitors: The specificity of mutilations. Neurosci Lett. 2005;382(3):291–6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2005.03.037 15925105

30. Gross JJ, Fredrickson BL, Levenson RW. The psychophysiology of crying. Psychophysiology. 1994;31(5):460–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb01049.x 7972600

31. Hendriks MCP, Croon M a, Vingerhoets AJJM. Social reactions to adult crying: the help-soliciting function of tears. J Soc Psychol. 2008;148(1):22–41. doi: 10.3200/SOCP.148.1.22-42 18476481

32. Hendriks MCP, Vingerhoets AJJM. Social messages of crying faces: Their influence on anticipated person perception, emotions and behavioural responses. Cogn Emot. 2006;20(6):878–86.

33. Decety J, Meyer M. From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: A social developmental neuroscience account. Dev Psychopathol. 2008 Sep 7;20(04):1053.

34. Singer T, Klimecki OM. Empathy and compassion. Curr Biol. 2014;24 (18):875–878.

35. Bianchin M, Angrilli A. Gender differences in emotional responses: A psychophysiological study. Physiol Behav. 2012;105(4):925–32. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.10.031 22108508

36. Bradley MM, Codispoti M, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion. 2001 Sep;1(3):276–98. 12934687

37. Codispoti M, Surcinelli P, Baldaro B. Watching emotional movies: Affective reactions and gender differences. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;69(2):90–5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.03.004 18433903

38. Herbert BM, Pollatos O, Schandry R. Interoceptive sensitivity and emotion processing: An EEG study. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;65(3):214–27. 17543405

39. Karama S, Armony J, Beauregard M. Film excerpts shown to specifically elicit various affects lead to overlapping activation foci in a large set of symmetrical brain regions in males. PLoS One. 2011;6(7).

40. Stevens JS, Hamann S. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50(7):1578–93. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.03.011 22450197

41. Wierzba M, Riegel M, Pucz A, Leśniewska Z, Dragan WŁ, Gola M, et al. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1336. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01336 26441715

42. Hartig T, Evans GW, Jamner LD, Davis DS, Gärling T. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. J Environ Psychol. 2003;23(2):109–23.

43. Johnsen SÅK, Rydstedt LW, Rydstedt LW. Active Use of the Natural Environment for Emotion Regulation. Eur J Psychol. 2013 Nov 29;9(4):798–819.

44. Kaplan S. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. J Environ Psychol. 1995 Sep;15(3):169–82.

45. Ulrich RS, Simons RF, Losito BD, Fiorito E, Miles MA, Zelson M. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. J Environ Psychol. 1991 Sep;11(3):201–30.

46. van den Berg AE, Koole SL, van der Wulp NY. Environmental preference and restoration: (How) are they related? J Environ Psychol. 2003;23(2):135–46.

47. Costa M, Dinsbach W, Manstead ASR, Ricci Bitti PE. Social presence, embarrassment, and nonverbal behavior. J Nonverbal Behav. 2001;25(4):225–40.

48. Maffei A, Vencato V, Angrilli A. Sex differences in emotional evaluation of film clips: Interaction with five high arousal emotional categories. PLoS One. 2015;10(12).

49. Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Measuring emotion: The self-assessment manikin and the semantic differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 1994;25(1):49–59. 7962581

50. Welch BL. The generalization of `Student’s’ problem when several different population variances are involved. Biometrika. 1947;34(1/2):28–35.

51. Lang PJ, Greenwald MK, Bradley MM, Hamm AO. Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophysiology. 1993;30(3):261–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1993.tb03352.x 8497555

52. Beute F, de Kort YAW. Salutogenic effects of the environment: Review of health protective effects of nature and daylight. Appl Psychol Heal Well-Being. 2014;6(1):67–95.

53. Cisler JM, Olatunji BO, Lohr JM, Williams NL. Attentional bias differences between fear and disgust: Implications for the role of disgust in disgust-related anxiety disorders. Cogn Emot. 2009 Jun;23(4):675–87. doi: 10.1080/02699930802051599 20589224

54. Goetz J, Keltner D, Simon-Thomas E. Compassion: an evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychol Bull. 2010;136(3):351–74. doi: 10.1037/a0018807 20438142

55. Menninghaus W, Wagner V, Hanich J, Wassiliwizky E, Kuehnast M, Jacobsen T. Towards a psychological construct of being moved. PLoS One. 2015 Jan 4;10(6):e0128451. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128451 26042816

56. Bradley MM, Codispoti M, Sabatinelli D, Lang PJ. Emotion and motivation II: sex differences in picture processing. Emotion. 2001;1(3):300–19. 12934688

57. Maffei A, Angrilli A. Spontaneous blink rate as an index of attention and emotion during film clips viewing. Physiol Behav. 2019;204(February):256–63. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.02.037 30822434

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden