The development of an evidence-based street food vending model within a socioecological framework: A guide for African countries

Autoři: Jillian Hill aff001;  Zandile Mchiza aff002;  Thandi Puoane aff002;  Nelia P. Steyn aff003
Působiště autorů: Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa aff001;  School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa aff002;  Division of Human Nutrition, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223535


In the present global economic crisis and continued rapid urbanization, street food (SF) vending has grown into a practical source of income for people in the developing world. SF are not only appreciated for their unique flavours, convenience, and affordability they also contribute to the economy of the country, the perseverance of cultural and social heritage of society, as well as the potential for maintaining and improving the nutritional status of populations. This study aimed to develop a street food vending model (SFVM) that encompasses healthy and safe food options for consumers including hygiene and safety guidelines and viable business and operations for vendors. An evidence-based approach, i.e. “systematically collected proof”, was used to inform the development of this model. Phase 1 included two surveys, one of street food vendors (N = 831) and the other of consumers (N = 1047). These surveys obtained data regarding the vendors’ operations and food items they sold and the consumers’ purchases and their nutrition knowledge. In Phase 2, interviews and focus groups were conducted with government officials. Additionally, regulations and policies regarding street vending were reviewed to determine available regulations and policies for street food vending. In Phase 3, data from the two phases were integrated and participatory action methods involving street food vendors used to validate the findings and inform the development of a SFVM by engaging in focus group discussions with street food vendors (N = 28). The components of the proposed SFVM comprised four parts, namely a food and nutrition component, a hygiene component, a business component and a vending cart. These components serve as a guide and considers various elements of the socioecological framework, namely intrapersonal/individual and interpersonal factors, the physical environment/community as well as the policy environment. The development of this model can serve as an example to countries which have large street food vending components and wish to optimize their value by making them safe and healthy for consumers. Thus, allowing vendors to trade under optimal conditions giving due consideration to regulations and policy.

Klíčová slova:

Environmental health – Finance – Food – Food consumption – Hygiene – Nutrition – Regulations – Vendors


1. Charman A, Petersen L. Informal micro-enterprises in a township context: A spatial analysis of business dynamics in five Cape Town localities. REDI3x3 Working Paper 5, Research Project on Employment, Income Distribution and Inclusive Growth, SALDRU, University of Cape Town, Cape Town; 2014.

2. von Holy A, Makhoane FM. Improving street food vending in South Africa: achievements and lessons learned. International journal of food microbiology. 2006;111(2):89–92. Epub 2006/07/22. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.06.012 16857283.

3. Martins JH. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in Gauteng. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;19(1):18–25.

4. Statistics South Africa. Census 2011. In: Statistics South Africa. Pretoria Stats SA Library Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) Data 2012.

5. Statistics South Africa. Quarterly Labour Force Survey, QLFS 1, 2017. In: Statistics South Africa. Pretoria 2017.

6. International Labour Organization. Street traders and their organisations in South Africa. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2003.

7. Willemse L. Opportunities and constraints facing informal traders: Evidence from four South African cities. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa: University of Stellenbosch, Centre for Regional and Urban Innovation and Statistical Exploration (CRUISE) DoGaES; 2011.

8. Steyn NP, McHiza Z, Hill J, Davids YD, Venter I, Hinrichsen E, et al. Nutritional contribution of street foods to the diet of people in developing countries: a systematic review. Public health nutrition. 2014;17(6):1363–74. Epub 2013/05/18. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013001158 23680029.

9. Hill J, Mchiza Z, Fourie J, Puoane T, Steyn N. Consumption patterns of street food consumers in Cape Town. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences. 2016;1(Special Edition, Food and nutrition challenges in Southern Africa).

10. Ekanem EO. The street food trade in Africa: safety and socio-environmental issues. Food Control. 1998;9(4):211–5.

11. Dawson RJ, Canet C. International activities in street foods. Food Control. 1991;2(3):135–9.

12. Steyn NP, Labadarios D. Street foods and fast foods: how much do South Africans of different ethnic groups consume? Ethnicity & disease. 2011;21(4):462–6. Epub 2012/03/21. 22428351.

13. Acho-Chi C. The Mobile Street Food Service Practice in the Urban Economy of Kumba, Cameroon. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 2002;23(2):131–48. doi: 10.1111/1467-9493.00122

14. Von Holy A. Street food vending. South African Food Review. 2004;31(1):15–6.

15. Von Holy A. HACCP hassle for small businesses. South African Food Review. 2004;31(6):33–4.

16. Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Mwadime RK, van Staveren WA, Foeken DW. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi. Food and nutrition bulletin. 2002;23(1):48–56. Epub 2002/04/27. doi: 10.1177/156482650202300107 11975369.

17. Cortese RDM, Veiros MB, Feldman C, Cavalli SB. Food safety and hygiene practices of vendors during the chain of street food production in Florianopolis, Brazil: A cross-sectional study. Food Control. 2016;62:178–86.

18. Hill J, McHiza Z, Puoane T, Steyn NP. Food sold by street-food vendors in Cape Town and surrounding areas: a focus on food and nutrition knowledge as well as practices related to food preparation of street-food vendors. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition. 2019;14(3):401–15. doi: 10.1080/19320248.2018.1434104

19. World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva, WHO.: World Health Organization, 2004.

20. Mchiza Z, Hill J, Steyn N. Foods currently sold by street food vendors in the Western Cape, South Africa, do not foster good health. Fast Foods: Consumption Patterns, Role of Globalization and Health Effects: Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated; 2014.

21. Babbie ER, Mouton J. The practice of social research. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa; 2001.

22. Bhana A. Participatory action research: A practical guide for realistic radicals. In: Terre Blanche M, Durrheim K, editors. Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press; 2002. p. 227–39.

23. Pope C, Ziebland S, Mays N. Qualitative research in health care. Analysing qualitative data. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2000;320(7227):114–6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7227.114 10625273.

24. Cohen L, Manion L. Research methods in education. London; New York: Routledge; 1995.

25. Smith, Mark K. ‘Building theory’, the encyclopaedia of informal education, (1999). Available from [ Retrieved: 26/03/2019].

26. Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher EB. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K, editors. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice, 4th ed. 4 ed. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass; 2008.

27. Elder JP, Lytle L, Sallis JF, Young DR, Steckler A, Simons-Morton D, et al. A description of the social-ecological framework used in the trial of activity for adolescent girls (TAAG). Health education research. 2007;22(2):155–65. Epub 2006/07/21. doi: 10.1093/her/cyl059 16855014

28. McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Education Quarterly. 1988;15(4):351–77. doi: 10.1177/109019818801500401 3068205

29. Bronfenbrenner U. Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist. 1977;32(7):513–31. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513

30. Government Gazette. Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972: Regulations Governing General Hygiene Requirements for Food Premises and the Transport of Food. In: Health Do, editor. South Africa: Department of Health.; 2012.

31. City of Cape Town. Guidelines for Conducting a Food Vending Business (Hawking in Meals). No date.

32. World Health Organization. Five keys to safer food manual. In: Department of Food Safety ZaFD, editor. France: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data; 2006.

33. Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O’Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annual review of public health. 2008;29:253–72. Epub 2007/11/23. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090926 18031223.

34. Vorster H, Badham J, Venter C. An introduction to the revised food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013;26(S):S5—S12.

35. Rheinlander T, Olsen M, Bakang JA, Takyi H, Konradsen F, Samuelsen H. Keeping up appearances: perceptions of street food safety in urban Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2008;85(6):952–64. Epub 2008/09/30. doi: 10.1007/s11524-008-9318-3 18821020

36. Sharit KB. Street Vendors in Asia: A Review. Economic and Political Weekly. 2005;40(22/23):2256–64.

37. Willarno F, Allain A. Street Foods in developing countries: Lessons learned from Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1991.

38. Becquey E, Martin-Prevel Y. Micronutrient adequacy of women’s diet in urban Burkina Faso is low. The Journal of nutrition. 2010;140(11):2079s–85s. Epub 2010/10/01. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.123356 20881079.

39. Nago ES, Lachat CK, Huybregts L, Roberfroid D, Dossa RA, Kolsteren PW. Food, energy and macronutrient contribution of out-of-home foods in school-going adolescents in Cotonou, Benin. British Journal of Nutrition. 2009;103(2):281–8. Epub 10/12. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509991668 19818195

40. Namugumya BS, Muyanja C. Contribution of street foods to the dietary needs of street food vendors in Kampala, Jinja and Masaka districts, Uganda. Public health nutrition. 2012;15(8):1503–11. Epub 2011/10/22. doi: 10.1017/S1368980011002710 22015148.

41. Privitera D, Nesci FS. Globalization vs. Local. The Role of Street Food in the Urban Food System. Procedia Economics and Finance. 2015;22:716–22.

42. Chakravarty I, Canet C. Street foods in Calcutta. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture. 1996;17(18):30–7.

43. Muinde OK, Kuria E. Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2005;5(1):online.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10