A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine in oncology: Psychological and physical effects of manipulative and body-based practices

Autoři: Nicolas Calcagni aff001;  Kamel Gana aff002;  Bruno Quintard aff001
Působiště autorů: Laboratoire EA 4136 / INSERM UMR 1219, Team: Handicap Activity Cognition Health (HACH), Bordeaux, France aff001;  Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223564



Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are widely used by cancer patients, despite limited evidence of efficacy. Manipulative and body-based practices are some of the most commonly used CAM. This systematic review evaluates their benefits in oncology.


A systematic literature review was carried out with no restriction of language, time, cancer location or type. PubMed, CENTRAL, PsycArticle, PsychInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and SOCindex were queried. Inclusion criteria were adult cancer patients and randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing manipulative and body-based complementary practices on psychological and symptom outcomes. Effect size was calculated when applicable.


Of 1624 articles retrieved, 41 articles were included: massage (24), reflexology (11), acupressure (6). Overall, 25 studies showed positive and significant effects on symptom outcomes (versus 9 that did not), especially pain and fatigue. Mixed outcomes were found for quality of life (8 papers finding a significant effect vs. 10 which did not) and mood (14 papers vs. 13). In most studies, there was a high risk of bias with a mean Jadad score of 2, making interpretation of results difficult.


These results seem to indicate that manipulative CAM may be effective on symptom management in cancer. However, more robust methodologies are needed. The methodological requirements of randomized controlled trials are challenging, and more informative results may be provided by more pragmatic study design.

Klíčová slova:

Anxiety – Cancer treatment – Emotions – Fatigue – Oncology – Quality of life – Randomized controlled trials – Systematic reviews


1. Buzyn A. Le Plan cancer 2014–2019: un plan de lutte contre les inégalités et les pertes de chance face à la maladie. Les Tribunes De La Santé 2014;43:53.

2. Wang T, Molassiotis A, Chung BPM, Tan J-Y. Unmet care needs of advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers: a systematic review. BMC Palliative Care 2018;17. doi: 10.1186/s12904-018-0346-9 30037346

3. Scott E, Jewell A. Supportive care needs of people with pancreatic cancer: a literature review. Cancer Nursing Practice 2019. doi: 10.7748/cnp.2019.e1566

4. Kotronoulas G, Papadopoulou C, Burns-Cunningham K, Simpson M, Maguire R. A systematic review of the supportive care needs of people living with and beyond cancer of the colon and/or rectum. European Journal of Oncology Nursing 2017;29:60–70. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2017.05.004 28720267

5. About us [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2018 [cited 5 April 2018]. http://www.who.int/traditional-complementary-integrative-medicine/about/en/2

6. Jackson C. Trends in the Use of Complementary Health Approaches Among Adults in the United States. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2015;29(3):178–179. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000088 25882269

7. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? [Internet]. NCCIH. 2018 [cited 5 April 2018]. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health

8. Plateforme CEPS: Ontologie [Internet]. Plateformeceps.univ-montp3.fr. 2018 [cited 19 June 2018]. https://plateformeceps.www.univ-montp3.fr/fr/nos-services/ontologie

9. Haute Autorité de Santé. Développement de la prescription de thérapeutiques non médicamenteuses validées. Paris: HAS Edition; 2011

10. Health Information | OCCAM [Internet]. Cam.cancer.gov. 2018 [cited 5 April 2018]. https://cam.cancer.gov/health_information/about_cam.htm

11. Richardson M, Sanders T, Palmer J, Greisinger A, Singletary S. Complementary/Alternative Medicine Use in a Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Implications for Oncology. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2000;18(13):2505–2514. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2000.18.13.2505 10893280

12. Simon L, Prebay D, Beretz A, Bagot J, Lobstein A, Rubionstein I et al. Médecines complémentaires et alternatives suivies par les patients cancéreux en France. Bulletin Cancer. 2007;94(5):483–488.

13. Molassiotis A, Fernandez-Ortega P, Pud D, Ozden G, Scott J, Panteli V et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients: a European survey. Annals of Oncology. 2005;16(4):655–663. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdi110 15699021

14. Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007. PsycEXTRA Dataset 2008.

15. Ling W-M, Lui LYY, So WKW, Chan K. Effects of Acupuncture and Acupressure on Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Systematic Review. Oncology Nursing Forum 2014;41:581–92. doi: 10.1188/14.ONF.581-592 25355016

16. Träger S. Place des thérapies complémentaires dans les soins oncologiques de support. Jusqu’à la mort accompagner la vie. 2016;125(2):11–16

17. Loquai C, Dechent D, Garzarolli M, Kaatz M, Kaehler K, Kurschat P et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine: A multicenter cross-sectional study in 1089 melanoma patients. European Journal of Cancer. 2017;71:70–79. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2016.10.029 27984769

18. Efficace F, Horneber M, Lejeune S, Van Dam F, Leering S, Rottmann M et al. Methodological quality of patient-reported outcome research was low in complementary and alternative medicine in oncology. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2006;59(12):1257.e1–1257.e14.

19. Kim J, Lee Myeong Soo, Kang Jung Won, Choi Do Young, Ernst E. Reflexology for the Symptomatic Treatment of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2010;9(4):326–330. doi: 10.1177/1534735410387423 21106613

20. McVicar A., Greenwood C., Ellis C., LeForis C. Influence of study design on outcomes following reflexology massage: an integrative and critical review of interventional studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2016;22(9), 739–750. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0015 27463943

21. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer 2009;17:333–7. doi: 10.1007/s00520-008-0569-z 19148685

22. Ernst E, Posadzki P, Lee M. Reflexology: An update of a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Maturitas 2011;68:116–20. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.10.011 21111551

23. Sikorskii A, Wyatt G, Victorson D, Faulkner G, Rahbar MH. Methodological Issues in Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions. Nursing research. 2009;58(6):444–451. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181bf15fe 19918155

24. reflexology [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/reflexology

25. chiropractic [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/chiropractic

26. osteopathy [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/osteopathy

27. naprapathy [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/naprapathy

28. shiatsu [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/shiatsu

29. tui na. [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/tui+na

30. acupressure [Internet]. TheFreeDictionary.com. 2018 [Cited 6 March 2018]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acupressure

31. Sagar S. M., Dryden Trish, and Wong Raimond K. "Massage therapy for cancer patients: a reciprocal relationship between body and mind." Current oncology.2007; 45.

32. Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews. 2015;4(1).

33. Wilson D. Effect Size Calculator [Internet]. Campbellcollaboration.org. 2018 [cited 16 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.campbellcollaboration.org/escalc/html/EffectSizeCalculator-SMD-main.php

34. Valentine JC, Pigott TD, Lau T. Systematic Reviewing and Meta-Analysis. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 2015;906–13.

35. Cumming G, Calin-Jageman R. Introduction to the new statistics. New York: Routledge; 2017.

36. Jadad A, Moore R, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds D, Gavaghan D et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: Is blinding necessary?. Controlled Clinical Trials. 1996;17(1):1–12. 8721797

37. Weinrich S, Weinrich M. The effect of massage on pain in cancer patients. Applied Nursing Research. 1990;3(4):140–145. 2252400

38. Wilkie D, Kampbell J, Cutshall S, Halabisky H, Harmon H, Johnson L et al. Effects of Massage on Pain Intensity, Analgesics and Quality of Life in Patients with Cancer Pain: A Pilot Study of a Randomized Clinical Trial Conducted Within Hospice Care Delivery. The Hospice Journal. 2000;15(3):31–53. 11315685

39. Hernandez-Reif M, Ironson G, Field T, Hurley J, Katz G, Diego M et al. Breast cancer patients have improved immune and neuroendocrine functions following massage therapy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2004;57(1):45–52. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00500-2 15256294

40. Soden K, Vincent K, Craske S, Lucas C, Ashley S. A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting. Palliative Medicine. 2004;18(2):87–92. doi: 10.1191/0269216304pm874oa 15046404

41. Wilcock A, Manderson C, Weller R, Walker G, Carr D, Carey A et al. Does aromatherapy massage benefit patients with cancer attending a specialist palliative care day centre?. Palliative Medicine. 2004;18(4):287–290. doi: 10.1191/0269216304pm895oa 15198118

42. Billhult A, Bergbom I, Stener-Victorin E. Massage Relieves Nausea in Women with Breast Cancer Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007;13(1):53–58. doi: 10.1089/acm.2006.6049 17309378

43. Campeau M, Gaboriault R, Drapeau M, Van Nguyen T, Roy I, Fortin B et al. Impact of Massage Therapy on Anxiety Levels in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2007;05(04):133.

44. Wilkinson S, Love S, Westcombe A, Gambles M, Burgess C, Cargill A et al. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy Massage in the Management of Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Cancer: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2007;25(5):532–539. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2006.08.9987 17290062

45. Billhult A, Lindholm C, Gunnarsson R, Stener-Victorin E. The effect of massage on cellular immunity, endocrine and psychological factors in women with breast cancer—A randomized controlled clinical trial. Autonomic Neuroscience. 2008;140(1–2):88–95. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2008.03.006 18474451

46. Kutner J, Smith M, Corbin L, Hemphill L, Benton K, Mellis B et al. Massage Therapy versus Simple Touch to Improve Pain and Mood in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008;149(6):369. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-149-6-200809160-00003 18794556

47. Listing M, Reißhauer A, Krohn M, Voigt B, Tjahono G, Becker J et al. Massage therapy reduces physical discomfort and improves mood disturbances in women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2009;18(12):1290–1299. doi: 10.1002/pon.1508 19189275

48. Listing M, Krohn M, Liezmann C, Kim I, Reisshauer A, Peters E et al. The efficacy of classical massage on stress perception and cortisol following primary treatment of breast cancer. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2010;13(2):165–173. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0143-9 20169378

49. Krohn M, Listing M, Tjahjono G, Reisshauer A, Peters E, Klapp B et al. Depression, mood, stress, and Th1/Th2 immune balance in primary breast cancer patients undergoing classical massage therapy. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2010;19(9):1303–1311. doi: 10.1007/s00520-010-0946-2 20644965

50. Fernández-lao C, Cantarero-Villanueva I, Díaz-Rodríguez L, Cuesta-Vargas A, Fernández-Delas-Peñas C, Arroyo-Morales M. Attitudes towards massage modify effects of manual therapy in breast cancer survivors: a randomised clinical trial with crossover design. European Journal of Cancer Care. 2011;21(2):233–241. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2011.01306.x 22060159

51. Jane S, Chen S, Wilkie D, Lin Y, Foreman S, Beaton R et al. Effects of massage on pain, mood status, relaxation, and sleep in Taiwanese patients with metastatic bone pain: A randomized clinical trial. Pain. 2011;152(10):2432–2442. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.06.021 21802850

52. Lai T, Cheung M, Lo C, Ng K, Fung Y, Tong M et al. Effectiveness of aroma massage on advanced cancer patients with constipation: A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2011;17(1):37–43. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.02.004 21168113

53. Toth M, Marcantonio E, Davis R, Walton T, Kahn J, Phillips R. Massage Therapy for Patients with Metastatic Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013;19(7):650–656. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0466 23368724

54. Kashani F, Kashani P. The effect of massage therapy on the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. 2014;19(2):113–118. 24834078

55. Darabpour S, Kheirkhah M, Ghasemi E. Effects of Swedish Massage on the Improvement of Mood Disorders in Women with Breast Cancer undergoing Radiotherapy. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2016;18(11).

56. Donoyama N, Satoh T, Hamano T, Ohkoshi N, Onuki M. Effects of Anma therapy (Japanese massage) on health-related quality of life in gynecologic cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(5):e0196638. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196638 29723235

57. Miladinia M, Baraz S, Shariati A, Malehi A. Effects of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on Symptom Cluster in Adult Patients With Acute Leukemia. Cancer Nursing. 2017;40(1):31–38. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000353 26925992

58. Kinkead B, Schettler P, Larson E, Carroll D, Sharenko M, Nettles J et al. Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial. Cancer. 2017;124(3):546–554. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31064 29044466

59. Ayik C, Özden D. The effects of preoperative aromatherapy massage on anxiety and sleep quality of colorectal surgery patients: A randomized controlled study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2018;36:93–99. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.12.002 29458940

60. Massingill J, Jorgensen C, Dolata J, Sehgal AR. Myofascial Massage for Chronic Pain and Decreased Upper Extremity Mobility After Breast Cancer Surgery. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork. 2018;11(3):4–9.

61. Hodgson H. Does reflexology impact on cancer patients’ quality of life? Nursing Standard. 2000;14(31):33–38. doi: 10.7748/ns2000. 11973949

62. Ross C, Hamilton J, Macrae G, Docherty C, Gould A, Cornbleet M. A pilot study to evaluate the effect of reflexology on mood and symptom rating of advanced cancer patients. Palliative Medicine. 2002;16(6):544–545. doi: 10.1191/0269216302pm597xx 12465705

63. Stephenson N, Dalton J, Carlson J. The effect of foot reflexology on pain in patients with metastatic cancer. Applied Nursing Research. 2003;16(4):284–286. 14608562

64. Stephenson N, Swanson M, Dalton J, Keefe F, Engelke M. Partner-Delivered Reflexology: Effects on Cancer Pain and Anxiety. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2007;34(1):127–132. doi: 10.1188/07.ONF.127-132 17562639

65. Tsay S, Chen H, Chen S, Lin H, Lin K. Effects of Reflexotherapy on Acute Postoperative Pain and Anxiety Among Patients With Digestive Cancer. Cancer Nursing. 2008;31(2):109–115. doi: 10.1097/01.NCC.0000305694.74754.7b 18490886

66. Sharp D, Walker M, Chaturvedi A, Upadhyay S, Hamid A, Walker A et al. A randomised, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 2010;46(2):312–322.2011. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2009.10.006 19906525

67. Wyatt G, Sikorskii A, Rahbar M, Victorson D, You M. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes: A Reflexology Trial With Patients With Advanced-Stage Breast Cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2012;39(6):568–577. doi: 10.1188/12.ONF.568-577 23107851

68. Özdelikara A, Tan M. The effect of reflexology on the quality of life with breast cancer patients. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2017;29:122–129. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.09.004 29122249

69. Uysal N, Kutlutürkan S, Uğur I. Effects of foot massage applied in two different methods on symptom control in colorectal cancer patients: Randomised control trial. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2017;23(3):e12532.

70. Wyatt G, Sikorskii A, Tesnjak I, Frambes D, Holmstrom A, Luo Z et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Caregiver-Delivered Reflexology for Symptom Management During Breast Cancer Treatment. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2017;54(5):670–679. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.07.037 28743659

71. Kurt S, Can G. Reflexology in the management of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy: A pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2018;32:12–19. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2017.11.001 29353627

72. Beikmoradi A, Najafi F, Roshanaei G, Pour Esmaeil Z, Khatibian M, Ahmadi A. Acupressure and Anxiety in Cancer Patients. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015;17(3).

73. Hsiung W, Chang Y, Yeh M, Chang Y. Acupressure improves the postoperative comfort of gastric cancer patients: A randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2015;23(3):339–346. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2015.03.010 26051568

74. Avci H, Ovayolu N, Ovayolu Ö. Effect of Acupressure on Nausea-Vomiting in Patients With Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2016;30(5):257–262. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000161 27501207

75. Sharif Nia H, Pahlevan Sharif S, Yaghoobzadeh A, Yeoh K, Goudarzian A, Soleimani M et al. Effect of acupressure on pain in Iranian leukemia patients: A randomized controlled trial study. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2017;23(2):e12513.

76. Sharifi Rizi M, Shamsalinia A, Ghaffari F, Keyhanian S, Naderi Nabi B. The effect of acupressure on pain, anxiety, and the physiological indexes of patients with cancer undergoing bone marrow biopsy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2017;29:136–141. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.09.002 29122251

77. Zhang B, Dong J, Sun P, Feng C, Liu Y. Effect of therapeutic care for treating fatigue in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Medicine. 2017;96(33):e7750. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000007750 28816951

78. Alcantara J, Alcantara J, Alcantara J. The chiropractic care of patients with asthma: a systematic review of the literature to inform clinical practice. Clinical Chiropractic. 2012;15(1):23–30.

79. Bishop F, Prescott P, Chan Y, Saville J, von Elm E, Lewith G. Prevalence of Complementary Medicine Use in Pediatric Cancer: A Systematic Review. PEDIATRICS. 2010;125(4):768–776. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1775 20308209

80. Giordano J, Boatwright D, Stapleton S, Huff L. Blending the Boundaries: Steps Toward an Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Mainstream Practice. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2002;8(6):897–906. doi: 10.1089/10755530260511892 12614540

81. Buchanan D, White J, O’Mara A, Kelaghan J, Smith W, Minasian L. Research-Design Issues in Cancer-Symptom–Management Trials Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Lessons From the National Cancer Institute Community Clinical Oncology Program Experience. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2005;23(27):6682–6689. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.10.728 16170176

82. Wilkinson S, Barnes K, Storey L. Massage for symptom relief in patients with cancer: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008;63(5):430–439. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04712.x 18727744

83. Pan Y, Yang K, Wang Y, Zhang L, Liang H. Massage interventions and treatment-related side effects of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2013;19(5):829–841. doi: 10.1007/s10147-013-0635-5 24275985

84. Price D, Bateman E, Chisholm A, Papadopoulos N, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Pizzichini E et al. Complementing the Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence Base. Evolution Not Revolution. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2014;11(Supplement 2):S92–S98.

85. Robinson N, Lorenc A, Liao X. The evidence for Shiatsu: a systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;11(1).

86. Smith J. Single-case experimental designs: A systematic review of published research and current standards. Psychological Methods. 2012;17(4):510–550. doi: 10.1037/a0029312 22845874

87. Johnson SB, Park HS, Gross CP, Yu JB. Complementary Medicine, Refusal of Conventional Cancer Therapy, and Survival Among Patients With Curable Cancers. JAMA Oncology. 2018J;4(10):1375. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2487 30027204

88. Clark HD, Wells GA, Huët C, Mcalister FA, Salmi L, Fergusson D, et al. Assessing the Quality of Randomized Trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 1999;20:448–52. doi: 10.1016/s0197-2456(99)00026-4 10503804

89. Berger VW. Is the Jadad score the proper evaluation of trials? The Journal of Rheumatology 2006; 33 (8): 1710–1711

90. Sterne JAC, Savović J, Page MJ, Elbers RG, Blencowe NS, Boutron I, Cates CJ, Cheng H-Y, Corbett MS, Eldridge SM, Hernán MA, Hopewell S, Hróbjartsson A, Junqueira DR, Jüni P, Kirkham JJ, Lasserson T, Li T, McAleenan A, Reeves BC, Shepperd S, Shrier I, Stewart LA, Tilling K, White IR, Whiting PF, Higgins JPT. RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ (in press).

91. Higgins J, Altman D, Gotzsche P, Juni P, Moher D, Oxman A et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;343(oct18 2):d5928–d5928.

92. Harrison S, Jones HE, Martin RM, Lewis SJ, Higgins JP. The albatross plot: A novel graphical tool for presenting results of diversely reported studies in a systematic review. Research Synthesis Methods 2017;8:281–9. doi: 10.1002/jrsm.1239 28453179

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10