Cardiac output measurements via echocardiography versus thermodilution: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Autoři: Yun Zhang aff001;  Yan Wang aff002;  Jing Shi aff001;  Zhiqiang Hua aff001;  Jinyu Xu aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Emergency Medicine, Wuxi People’s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China aff001;  Education Department, Wuxi People’s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222105


Echocardiography, as a noninvasive hemodynamic evaluation technique, is frequently used in critically ill patients. Different opinions exist regarding whether it can be interchanged with traditional invasive means, such as the pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution (TD) technique. This systematic review aimed to analyze the consistency and interchangeability of cardiac output measurements by ultrasound (US) and TD. Five electronic databases were searched for studies including clinical trials conducted up to June 2019 in which patients’ cardiac output was measured by ultrasound techniques (echocardiography) and TD. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by two independent reviewers who used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2), which was tailored according to our systematic review in Review Manager 5.3. A total of 68 studies with 1996 patients were identified as eligible. Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis were used to compare the cardiac output (CO) measured using the different types of echocardiography and different sites of Doppler use with TD. No significant differences were found between US and TD (random effects model: mean difference [MD], -0.14; 95% confidence interval, -0.30 to 0.02; P = 0.08). No significant differences were observed in the subgroup analyses using different types of echocardiography and different sites except for ascending aorta (AA) (random effects model: mean difference [MD], -0.37; 95% confidence interval, -0.74 to -0.01; P = 0.05) of Doppler use. The median of bias and limits of agreement were -0.12 and ±0.94 L/min, respectively; the median of correlation coefficient was 0.827 (range, 0.140–0.998). Although the difference in CO between echocardiography by different types or sites and TD was not entirely consistent, the overall effect of meta-analysis showed that no significant differences were observed between US and TD. The techniques may be interchangeable under certain conditions.

Klíčová slova:

Blood flow – Cardiac output – Cardiac surgery – Coronary artery bypass grafting – Echocardiography – Surgical and invasive medical procedures – Vascular surgery


1. Ehlers KC, Mylrea KC, Waterson CK, Calkins JM. Cardiac output measurements. A review of current techniques and research. Annals of biomedical engineering. 1986;14(3):219–39. doi: 10.1007/bf02584272 3532871.

2. Castor G, Klocke RK, Stoll M, Helms J, Niedermark I. Simultaneous measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution, thoracic electrical bioimpedance and Doppler ultrasound. British journal of anaesthesia. 1994;72(1):133–8. doi: 10.1093/bja/72.1.133 8110539.

3. Litton E, Morgan M. The PiCCO monitor: a review. Anaesthesia and intensive care. 2012;40(3):393–409. doi: 10.1177/0310057X1204000304 22577904.

4. Chand R, Mehta Y, Trehan N. Cardiac output estimation with a new Doppler device after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2006;20(3):315–9. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2005.05.024 16750729.

5. Savino JS, Troianos CA, Aukburg S, Weiss R, Reichek N. Measurement of pulmonary blood flow with transesophageal two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Anesthesiology. 1991;75(3):445–51. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199109000-00011 1888051.

6. Chew HC, Devanand A, Phua GC, Loo CM. Oesophageal Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of haemodynamic status of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit with septic shock. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2009;38(8):699–703. 19736574.

7. Estagnasie P, Djedaini K, Mier L, Coste F, Dreyfuss D. Measurement of cardiac output by transesophageal echocardiography in mechanically ventilated patients. Comparison with thermodilution. Intensive care medicine. 1997;23(7):753–9. doi: 10.1007/s001340050405 9290989.

8. Hammoudi N, Hekimian G, Laveau F, Achkar M, Isnard R, Combes A. Three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography for cardiac output in critically ill patients: A pilot study of ultrasound versus the thermodilution method. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;110(1):7–13. doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2016.04.009 28017278.

9. Ong G, Redfors B, Crowley A, Abdel-Qadir H, Harrington A, Liu Y, et al. Evaluation of left ventricular reverse remodeling in patients with severe aortic regurgitation undergoing aortic valve replacement: Comparison between diameters and volumes. Echocardiography. 2018;35(2):142–7. doi: 10.1111/echo.13750 29193376.

10. Gassner M, Killu K, Bauman Z, Coba V, Rosso K, Blyden D. Feasibility of common carotid artery point of care ultrasound in cardiac output measurements compared to invasive methods. J Ultrasound. 2015;18(2):127–33. doi: 10.1007/s40477-014-0139-9 26191100; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4504859.

11. Lindberg L, Johansson S, Perez-de-Sa V. Validation of an ultrasound dilution technology for cardiac output measurement and shunt detection in infants and children. Pediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2014;15(2):139–47. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000053 24366506.

12. Krivitski NM, Kislukhin VV, Thuramalla NV. Theory and in vitro validation of a new extracorporeal arteriovenous loop approach for hemodynamic assessment in pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit patients. Pediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2008;9(4):423–8. doi: 10.1097/01.PCC.0b013e31816c71bc 18496416; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2574659.

13. Tchorz KM, Chandra MS, Markert RJ, Healy M, Anderson H 3rd, Ekeh AP, et al. Comparison of hemodynamic measurements from invasive and noninvasive monitoring during early resuscitation. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72(4):852–60. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31824b1764 22491596.

14. Huang H, Liu SF. The clinical evaluation of ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in patients with mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit. Chinese Journal of Clinicians(Electronic Edition). 2013;7(23):11013–4.

15. Yuan J, Chen Y, Ma Y, Yu HD, Yang F, Shao J. Clinical research of the accuracy of cardiac output in ICU patients with cardiac shock by echocardiography. The Journal of Medical Theory and Practice. 2013;26(20):2678–9.

16. Zhang L, Zhu FX, An YZ. Comparison of ultrasonic cardiac output monitor and pulse indicated continuous cardiac output monitor on determination of hemodynamic parameters in critical patients. Chinese Critical Care Medicine. 2016;28(9):796–800. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2016.09.006

17. Wetterslev M, Moller-Sorensen H, Johansen RR, Perner A. Systematic review of cardiac output measurements by echocardiography vs. thermodilution: the techniques are not interchangeable. Intensive care medicine. 2016;42(8):1223–33. doi: 10.1007/s00134-016-4258-y 26932349.

18. Moller-Sorensen H, Graeser K, Hansen KL, Zemtsovski M, Sander EM, Nilsson JC. Measurements of cardiac output obtained with transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary artery thermodilution are not interchangeable. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014;58(1):80–8. doi: 10.1111/aas.12227 24192143.

19. Arora D, Chand R, Mehta Y, Trehan N. Cardiac output estimation after off-pump coronary artery bypass: a comparison of two different techniques. Ann Card Anaesth. 2007;10(2):132–6. 17644886.

20. Axler O, Tousignant C, Thompson CR, Dall'ava-Santucci J, Phang PT, Russell JA, et al. Comparison of transesophageal echocardiographic, fick, and thermodilution cardiac output in critically ill patients. J Crit Care. 1996;11(3):109–16. 8891961.

21. Basdogan F, Visser W, Struijk PC, Jansen JR, Vletter WB, Wladimiroff JW, et al. Automated cardiac output measurements by ultrasound are inaccurate at high cardiac outputs. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15(6):508–12. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0705.2000.00128.x 11005119.

22. Beltramo F, Menteer J, Razavi A, Khemani RG, Szmuszkovicz J, Newth CJ, et al. Validation of an Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor as a Bedside Tool for Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Cardiol. 2016;37(1):177–83. doi: 10.1007/s00246-015-1261-y 26364291.

23. Bojanowski LM, Timmis AD, Najm YC, Gosling RG. Pulsed Doppler ultrasound compared with thermodilution for monitoring cardiac output responses to changing left ventricular function. Cardiovasc Res. 1987;21(4):260–8. doi: 10.1093/cvr/21.4.260 3652093.

24. Botero M, Kirby D, Lobato EB, Staples ED, Gravenstein N. Measurement of cardiac output before and after cardiopulmonary bypass: Comparison among aortic transit-time ultrasound, thermodilution, and noninvasive partial CO2 rebreathing. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2004;18(5):563–72. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2004.07.005 15578466.

25. Cariou A, Monchi M, Joly LM, Bellenfant F, Claessens YE, Thebert D, et al. Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring by aortic blood flow determination: evaluation of the Sometec Dynemo-3000 system. Critical care medicine. 1998;26(12):2066–72. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199812000-00043 9875922.

26. Chandraratna PA, Brar R, Vijayasekaran S, Chen QX, Niguse GT, Shaikh Y, et al. Continuous recording of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure and cardiac output using a novel ultrasound transducer. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2002;15(11):1381–6. doi: 10.1067/mje.2002.125921 12415232.

27. Coats AJ, Murphy C, Conway J, Sleight P. Validation of the beat to beat measurement of blood velocity in the human ascending aorta by a new high temporal resolution Doppler ultrasound spectral analyser. Br Heart J. 1992;68(2):223–9. doi: 10.1136/hrt.68.8.223 1389745; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1025022.

28. Corley A, Barnett AG, Mullany D, Fraser JF. Nurse-determined assessment of cardiac output. Comparing a non-invasive cardiac output device and pulmonary artery catheter: a prospective observational study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(10):1291–7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.03.013 19423107.

29. Crittendon I 3rd, Dreyer WJ, Decker JA, Kim JJ. Ultrasound dilution: an accurate means of determining cardiac output in children. Pediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2012;13(1):42–6. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182196804 21499176; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3176999.

30. Darmon PL, Hillel Z, Mogtader A, Mindich B, Thys D. Cardiac output by transesophageal echocardiography using continuous-wave Doppler across the aortic valve. Anesthesiology. 1994;80(4):796–805; discussion 25A. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199404000-00011 8024133.

31. Descorps-Declere A, Smail N, Vigue B, Duranteau J, Mimoz O, Edouard A, et al. Transgastric, pulsed Doppler echocardiographic determination of cardiac output. Intensive care medicine. 1996;22(1):34–8. doi: 10.1007/bf01728328 8857435.

32. DiCorte CJ, Latham P, Greilich PE, Cooley MV, Grayburn PA, Jessen ME. Esophageal Doppler monitor determinations of cardiac output and preload during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(6):1782–6. doi: 10.1016/s0003-4975(00)01129-2 10892923.

33. Eremenko AA, Safarov PN. Flow-regulated extracorporeal arteriovenous tubing loop for cardiac output measurements by ultrasound velocity dilution: validation in post-cardiac surgery intensive care unit patients. ASAIO journal. 2010;56(6):522–6. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0b013e3181effdf8 21245798.

34. Feinberg MS, Hopkins WE, Davila-Roman VG, Barzilai B. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiographic doppler imaging accurately determines cardiac output measurements in critically ill patients. Chest. 1995;107(3):769–73. doi: 10.1378/chest.107.3.769 7874951.

35. Froese N, Friesen R. Measurement of cardiac output—transtracheal Doppler versus thermodilution. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 1991;38(7):931–4. doi: 10.1007/BF03036977 1742833.

36. Galstyan G, Bychinin M, Alexanyan M, Gorodetsky V. Comparison of cardiac output and blood volumes in intrathoracic compartments measured by ultrasound dilution and transpulmonary thermodilution methods. Intensive care medicine. 2010;36(12):2140–4. doi: 10.1007/s00134-010-2003-5 20689918.

37. Hausen B, Schafers HJ, Rohde R, Haverich A. Clinical evaluation of transtracheal Doppler for continuous cardiac output estimation. Anesthesia and analgesia. 1992;74(6):800–4. doi: 10.1213/00000539-199206000-00004 1595910.

38. Hoole SP, Boyd J, Ninios V, Parameshwar J, Rusk RA. Measurement of cardiac output by real-time 3D echocardiography in patients undergoing assessment for cardiac transplantation. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2008;9(3):334–7. doi: 10.1016/j.euje.2007.03.033 17618836.

39. Horster S, Stemmler HJ, Strecker N, Brettner F, Hausmann A, Cnossen J, et al. Cardiac Output Measurements in Septic Patients: Comparing the Accuracy of USCOM to PiCCO. Crit Care Res Pract. 2012;2012:270631. doi: 10.1155/2012/270631 22191019; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3235433.

40. Horster S, Stemmler HJ, Sparrer J, Tischer J, Hausmann A, Geiger S. Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure in critically ill patients: comparison of CW-Doppler ultrasound cardiac output monitoring (USCOM) and thermodilution (PiCCO). Acta Cardiol. 2012;67(2):177–85. doi: 10.2143/AC.67.2.2154208 22641975.

41. Huntsman LL, Stewart DK, Barnes SR, Franklin SB, Colocousis JS, Hessel EA. Noninvasive Doppler determination of cardiac output in man. Clinical validation. Circulation. 1983;67(3):593–602. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.67.3.593 6821902.

42. Izzat MB, Regragui IA, Wilde P, Angelini GD, Bryan AJ. Transesophageal echocardiographic measurements of cardiac output in cardiac surgical patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(5):1486–9. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(94)91941-0 7979680.

43. Knirsch W, Kretschmar O, Tomaske M, Stutz K, Nagdyman N, Balmer C, et al. Cardiac output measurement in children: comparison of the Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor with thermodilution cardiac output measurement. Intensive care medicine. 2008;34(6):1060–4. doi: 10.1007/s00134-008-1030-y 18297271.

44. Lee W, Rokey R, Cotton DB. Noninvasive maternal stroke volume and cardiac output determinations by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158(3 Pt 1):505–10. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(88)90014-2 3348311.

45. Levy BI, Payen DM, Tedgui A, Xhaard M, McIlroy MB. Non-invasive ultrasonic cardiac output measurement in intensive care unit. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1985;11(6):841–9. doi: 10.1016/0301-5629(85)90078-x 3913083.

46. Marcelino P, Germano N, Marum S, Fernandes AP, Ribeiro P, Lopes MG. Haemodynamic parameters obtained by transthoracic echocardiography and Swan-Ganz catheter: a comparative study in liver transplant patients. Acta Med Port. 2006;19(3):197–205. 17234080.

47. Mark JB, Steinbrook RA, Gugino LD, Maddi R, Hartwell B, Shemin R, et al. Continuous noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output with esophageal Doppler ultrasound during cardiac surgery. Anesthesia and analgesia. 1986;65(10):1013–20. 3530048.

48. Maslow A, Comunale ME, Haering JM, Watkins J. Pulsed wave Doppler measurement of cardiac output from the right ventricular outflow tract. Anesthesia and analgesia. 1996;83(3):466–71. doi: 10.1097/00000539-199609000-00004 8780264.

49. Mayer SA, Sherman D, Fink ME, Homma S, Solomon RA, Lennihan L, et al. Noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography in patients treated with volume expansion after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Critical care medicine. 1995;23(9):1470–4. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199509000-00005 7664547.

50. McLean AS, Needham A, Stewart D, Parkin R. Estimation of cardiac output by noninvasive echocardiographic techniques in the critically ill subject. Anaesthesia and intensive care. 1997;25(3):250–4. doi: 10.1177/0310057X9702500307 9209605.

51. Missant C, Rex S, Wouters PF. Accuracy of cardiac output measurements with pulse contour analysis (PulseCO) and Doppler echocardiography during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25(3):243–8. doi: 10.1017/S0265021507002979 17996125.

52. Moxon D, Pinder M, van Heerden PV, Parsons RW. Clinical evaluation of the HemoSonic monitor in cardiac surgical patients in the ICU. Anaesthesia and intensive care. 2003;31(4):408–11. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0303100410 12973965.

53. Muhiudeen IA, Kuecherer HF, Lee E, Cahalan MK, Schiller NB. Intraoperative estimation of cardiac output by transesophageal pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Anesthesiology. 1991;74(1):9–14. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199101000-00003 1986664.

54. Parra V, Fita G, Rovira I, Matute P, Gomar C, Pare C. Transoesophageal echocardiography accurately detects cardiac output variation: a prospective comparison with thermodilution in cardiac surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25(2):135–43. doi: 10.1017/S0265021507001354 17672920.

55. Perrino AC Jr., Harris SN, Luther MA. Intraoperative determination of cardiac output using multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: a comparison to thermodilution. Anesthesiology. 1998;89(2):350–7. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199808000-00010 9710392.

56. Pinto FJ, Siegel LC, Chenzbraun A, Schnittger I. On-line estimation of cardiac output with a new automated border detection system using transesophageal echocardiography: a preliminary comparison with thermodilution. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 1994;8(6):625–30. doi: 10.1016/1053-0770(94)90192-9 7880989.

57. Poelaert J, Schmidt C, Van Aken H, Hinder F, Mollhoff T, Loick HM. A comparison of transoesophageal echocardiographic Doppler across the aortic valve and the thermodilution technique for estimating cardiac output. Anaesthesia. 1999;54(2):128–36. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2044.1999.00666.x 10215707.

58. Pombo JF, Russell RO Jr., Rackley CE, Foster GL. Comparison of stroke volume and cardiac output determination by ultrasound and dye dilution in acute myocardial infarction. The American journal of cardiology. 1971;27(6):630–5. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(71)90227-x 4932616.

59. Ryan T, Page R, Bouchier-Hayes D, Cunningham AJ. Transoesophageal pulsed wave Doppler measurement of cardiac output during major vascular surgery: comparison with the thermodilution technique. British journal of anaesthesia. 1992;69(1):101–4. doi: 10.1093/bja/69.1.101 1637593.

60. Sato M, Kunisawa T. Reliability of Cardiac Output Measurements Using LiDCOrapid and Calibration by Transesophageal Echocardiography With the Continuous Pulmonary Artery Thermodilution Method in Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2018;32(6):2495–502. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2018.04.018 29801725.

61. Segal J, Gaudiani V, Nishimura T. Continuous determination of cardiac output using a flow-directed Doppler pulmonary artery catheter. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 1991;5(4):309–15. doi: 10.1016/1053-0770(91)90151-i 1831393.

62. Shimamoto H, Kito H, Kawazoe K, Fujita T, Shimamoto Y. Transoesophageal Doppler echocardiographic measurement of cardiac output by the mitral annulus method. Br Heart J. 1992;68(5):510–5. doi: 10.1136/hrt.68.11.510 1467040; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1025199.

63. Shimamoto H, Shimamoto Y, Kito H, Kawazoe K, Fujita T, Okamoto M. Doppler echocardiographic measurement of cardiac output in man using mitral annulus method. Journal of clinical ultrasound: JCU. 1992;20(4):263–70. doi: 10.1002/jcu.1870200407 1315800.

64. Souto Moura T, Aguiar Rosa S, Germano N, Cavaco R, Sequeira T, Alves M, et al. The accuracy of PiCCO(R) in measuring cardiac output in patients under therapeutic hypothermia: Comparison with transthoracic echocardiography. Medicina intensiva. 2017;42(2):92–8. doi: 10.1016/j.medin.2017.03.007 28552462.

65. Su BC, Lin CC, Su CW, Hui YL, Tsai YF, Yang MW, et al. Ultrasonic cardiac output monitor provides accurate measurement of cardiac output in recipients after liver transplantation. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2008;46(4):171–7. doi: 10.1016/S1875-4597(09)60005-9 19097964.

66. Su BC, Yu HP, Yang MW, Lin CC, Kao MC, Chang CH, et al. Reliability of a new ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in recipients of living donor liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2008;14(7):1029–37. doi: 10.1002/lt.21461 18581505.

67. Tan HL, Pinder M, Parsons R, Roberts B, van Heerden PV. Clinical evaluation of USCOM ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in cardiac surgical patients in intensive care unit. British journal of anaesthesia. 2005;94(3):287–91. doi: 10.1093/bja/aei054 15653709.

68. Temporelli PL, Scapellato F, Eleuteri E, Imparato A, Giannuzzi P. Doppler echocardiography in advanced systolic heart failure: a noninvasive alternative to Swan-Ganz catheter. Circulation Heart failure. 2010;3(3):387–94. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.809590 20197560.

69. Thom O, Taylor DM, Wolfe RE, Cade J, Myles P, Krum H, et al. Comparison of a supra-sternal cardiac output monitor (USCOM) with the pulmonary artery catheter. British journal of anaesthesia. 2009;103(6):800–4. doi: 10.1093/bja/aep296 19864307.

70. Tibbals J, Osborne A, Hockmann M. A comparative study of cardiac output measurement by dye dilution and pulsed Doppler ultrasound. Anaesthesia and intensive care. 1988;16(3):272–7. doi: 10.1177/0310057X8801600306 3056088.

71. Tsutsui M, Matsuoka N, Ikeda T, Sanjo Y, Kazama T. Comparison of a new cardiac output ultrasound dilution method with thermodilution technique in adult patients under general anesthesia. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2009;23(6):835–40. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2009.03.007 19464193.

72. Van den Oever HL, Murphy EJ, Christie-Taylor GA. USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) lacks agreement with thermodilution cardiac output and transoesophageal echocardiography valve measurements. Anaesthesia and intensive care. 2007;35(6):903–10. doi: 10.1177/0310057X0703500608 18084981.

73. Warth DC, Stewart WJ, Block PC, Weyman AE. A new method to calculate aortic valve area without left heart catheterization. Circulation. 1984;70(6):978–83. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.70.6.978 6499155.

74. Wong LS, Yong BH, Young KK, Lau LS, Cheng KL, Man JS, et al. Comparison of the USCOM ultrasound cardiac output monitor with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2008;14(7):1038–43. doi: 10.1002/lt.21483 18581504.

75. Wong DH, Mahutte CK. Two-beam pulsed Doppler cardiac output measurement: reproducibility and agreement with thermodilution. Critical care medicine. 1990;18(4):433–7. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199004000-00017 2180638.

76. Wong DH, Tremper KK, Stemmer EA, O'Connor D, Wilbur S, Zaccari J, et al. Noninvasive cardiac output: simultaneous comparison of two different methods with thermodilution. Anesthesiology. 1990;72(5):784–92. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199005000-00002 2187376.

77. Zhao X, Mashikian JS, Panzica P, Lerner A, Park KW, Comunale ME. Comparison of thermodilution bolus cardiac output and Doppler cardiac output in the early post-cardiopulmonary bypass period. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2003;17(2):193–8. doi: 10.1053/jcan.2003.46 12698401.

78. Cheitlin MD, Armstrong WF, Aurigemma GP, Beller GA, Bierman FZ, Davis JL, et al. ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 Guideline Update for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography: summary article. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASE Committee to Update the 1997 Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography). Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2003;16(10):1091–110. doi: 10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00685-0 14566308.

79. Critchley LA, Critchley JA. A meta-analysis of studies using bias and precision statistics to compare cardiac output measurement techniques. Journal of clinical monitoring and computing. 1999;15(2):85–91. 12578081.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10