Comparing low-cost handheld autorefractors: A practical approach to measuring refraction in low-resource settings

Autoři: Arunika Agarwal aff001;  David E. Bloom aff001;  Vincent P. deLuise aff002;  Alyssa Lubet aff003;  Kaushik Murali aff004;  Srinivas M. Sastry aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, United States of America aff001;  Department of Ophthalmology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America aff002;  Center for Education Policy Research, Harvard University Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA, United States of America aff003;  Sankara Academy of Vision, Sankara Eye Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India aff004;  Bethesda Retina, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



To compare and validate the accuracy and ease of use of handheld autorefractors against retinoscopic refraction by an ophthalmologist for assessing the visual acuity of older adults in India.


190 patients were enrolled at the Sankara Eye Hospital in Bangalore, India, to undergo refraction using three different handheld devices—Retinomax (Nikon Inc., Japan), Netra (Eyenetra, Inc., USA), and QuickSee (PlenOptika, Inc., USA)—and the results were compared with cycloplegic retinoscopy and refraction done by an ophthalmologist. We analyzed the mean, standard deviation (S.D.), and Bland-Altman comparison of dioptric (D) power accuracy.


The difference between the handheld devices and subjective refraction for each device was: Retinomax (N = 186), mean -0.41 D, S.D. 2.14; Netra (N = 179), mean 0.61 D, S.D. 2.20; and QuickSee (N = 182), mean -0.05 D, S.D. 1.04.


The QuickSee and the Retinomax may be used successfully as refraction screening tools in epidemiologic studies of adults in India and as diagnostic tools in low-resource settings.

Klíčová slova:

Diagnostic medicine – Elderly – Eyes – Socioeconomic aspects of health – Vision – Visual acuity – Visual impairments – Blindness


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Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
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