Declared impact of the US President’s statements and campaign statements on Latino populations’ perceptions of safety and emergency care access


Autoři: Robert M. Rodriguez aff001;  Jesus R. Torres aff001;  Jennifer Sun aff002;  Harrison Alter aff001;  Carolina Ornelas aff001;  Mayra Cruz aff001;  Leah Fraimow-Wong aff002;  Alexis Aleman aff003;  Luis M. Lovato aff003;  Angela Wong aff001;  Breena Taira aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America aff001;  Highland Hospital-Alameda Health System, Oakland, California, United States of America aff002;  Olive View UCLA Medical Center–University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, United States of America aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222837

Souhrn

Statements about building walls, deportation and denying services to undocumented immigrants made during President Trump’s presidential campaign and presidency may induce fear in Latino populations and create barriers to their health care access. To assess how these statements relate to undocumented Latino immigrants’ (UDLI) and Latino legal residents/citizens’ (LLRC) perceptions of safety and their presentations for emergency care, we conducted surveys of adult patients at three county emergency departments (EDs) in California from June 2017 to December 2018. Of 1,684 patients approached, 1,337 (79.4%) agreed to participate: 34.3% UDLI, 36.9% LLRC, and 29.8% non-Latino legal residents/citizens (NLRC). The vast majority of UDLI (95%), LLRC (94%) and NLRC (85%) had heard statements about immigrants. Most UDLI (89%), LLRC (88%) and NLRC (87%) either thought that these measures were being enacted now or will be enacted in the future. Most UDLI and half of LLRC reported that these statements made them feel unsafe living in the US, 75% (95% CI 70–80%) and 51% (95% CI 47–56%), respectively. More UDLI reported that these statements made them afraid to come to the ED (24%, 95% CI 20–28%) vs LLRC (4.4%, 95% CI 3–7%) and NLRC (3.5%, 95% CI 2–6%); 55% of UDLI with this fear stated it caused them to delay coming to the ED (median delay 2–3 days). The vast majority of patients in our California EDs have heard statements during the 2016 presidential campaign or from President Trump about measures against undocumented immigrants, which have induced worry and safety concerns in both UDLI and LLRC patients. Exposure to these statements was also associated with fear of accessing emergency care in some UDLIs. Given California’s sanctuary state status, these safety concerns and ED access fears may be greater in a nationwide population of Latinos.

Klíčová slova:

Critical care and emergency medicine – Fear – Governments – Health insurance – Language – Socioeconomic aspects of health – Surveys – United States


Zdroje

1. Passel JS, Cohn D. U.S. Unauthorized Immigrant Total Dips to Lowest Level in a Decade. Pew Hispanic Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2018/11/27/u-s-unauthorized-immigrant-total-dips-to-lowest-level-in-a-decade/. Published November 27, 2018. Accessed January 14, 2019.

2. Tarraf W, Vega W, Gonzalez HM. Emergency Department Services Use among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Groups in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2014;16(4):595–606. doi: 10.1007/s10903-013-9802-z 23447058

3. Gusmano MK. Lack of Coverage for Undocumented Patients Puts Pressure on the Health Care Safety Net. https://www.rwjf.org/en/blog/2014/09/lack_of_coveragefor.html. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Blog. Published September 26, 2014. Accessed January 14, 2019.

4. Derose KP, Bahney BW, Lurie N, Escarce JJ. Review: immigrants and health care access, quality, and cost. Med Care Res Rev. 2009;66(4):355–408. doi: 10.1177/1077558708330425 19179539

5. Zibulewsky J. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA): What it is and what it means for physicians. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 Oct; 14(4):339–46.

6. Maldonado CZ, Rodriguez RM, Torres JR, Flores YS, Lovato LM. Fear of discovery among Latino immigrants presenting to the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;20(2):155–61. doi: 10.1111/acem.12079 23406074

7. Gamboa S. Donald Trump Announces Presidential Bid By Trashing Mexico, Mexicans. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/donald-trump-announces-presidential-bid-trashing-mexico-mexicans-n376521. Published June 16, 2015. Updated June 16, 2015. Accessed January 14, 2019.

8. Desjardins L. What is Donald Trump’s 10-Point immigration plan? PBS NewsHour. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/donald-trumps-10-point-immigration-plan. Published September 1, 2016. Accessed January 14, 2019.

9. Osnos E. President Trump’s First Term. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/09/26/president-trumps-first-term. Published September 26, 2016. Accessed January 14, 2019.

10. Trump DJ. Executive Order 13768: Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-enhancing-public-safety-interior-united-states/. Published January 25, 2017. Accessed January 14, 2019.

11. Gamboa S, Soto VD, Nuño SA. Trump Ends Convention as He Started Campaign: Linking Immigrants to Crime. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/2016-conventions/trump-ends-convention-he-started-campaign-linking-immigrants-crime-n614551. Published July 21, 2016. Updated July 22, 2016. Accessed January 14, 2019.

12. Bialik K. ICE Arrests went up in 2017, with biggest increases in Florida, northern Texas, Oklahoma. Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/02/08/ice-arrests-went-up-in-2017-with-biggest-increases-in-florida-northern-texas-oklahoma/. Published February 8, 2018. Accessed January 14, 2019.

13. McCarthy J. Immigration Up Sharply as Most Important U.S. Problem. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/poll/244925/immigration-sharply-important-problem.aspx. Published November 20, 2018. Accessed January 14, 2019.

14. Tinney D, Quinlan S. Explaining the Trump Victory: Populist Sentiments and the 2016 Presidential Election. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES). Published May 3, 2017. Accessed January 14, 2019.

15. American Immigration Council. US Citizen Children Impacted by Immigration Enforcement. https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/us-citizen-children-impacted-immigration-enforcement. Published May 23, 2018. Accessed January 31, 2019.

16. Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. J Biomed Inform. 2009 Apr;42(2):377–81. Epub 2008 Sep 30. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2008.08.010 18929686.

17. Ortega AN, McKenna RM, Kemmick Pintor J, Langellier BA, Roby DH, Pourat N, et al. Health Care Access and Physical and Behavioral Health Among Undocumented Latinos in California. Med Care. 2018 Nov;56(11):919–26. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000985 30216201

18. Hacker K, Anies M, Folb BL, Zallman L. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review. Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2015;8:175–83. doi: 10.2147/RMHP.S70173 26586971

19. Sommers BD. Stuck between Health and Immigration Reform—Care for Undocumented Immigrants. New Engl J Med 2013;369:593–5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1306636 23883331

20. Zallman L, Finnegan KE, Himmelstein DU, Touw S, Woolhandler S. Implications of Changing Public Charge Immigration Rules for Children Who Need Medical Care. JAMA Pediatr [Internet]. 2019 Jul 1 [cited 2019 Oct 10];173(9):e191744. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1744

21. Katz MH, Chokshi DA. The "Public Charge" Proposal and Public Health: Implications for Patients and Clinicians. JAMA 2018;320:2075–6. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.16391 30285073

22. Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds: A Proposed Rule by the Homeland Security Department on 10/10/2018. 83 FR 51114. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/10/10/2018-21106/inadmissibility-on-public-charge-grounds

23. State of California Department of Justice, Office of the Attorney General. Hate Crime in California 2017. OpenJustice. https://openjustice.doj.ca.gov/resources/publications. Published July 9, 2018. Accessed January 29, 2019.

24. Watson T. Inside the Refrigerator: Immigration Enforcement and Chilling Effects in Medicaid Participation. Am Econ J: Economic Policy 2014;6:313–38.

25. Batalova J, Fix M, Greenberg M. Chilling Effects: The Expected Public Charge Rule and Its Impact on Legal Immigrant Families’ Public Benefits Use. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/chilling-effects-expected-public-charge-rule-impact-legal-immigrant-families. Published June 2018. Accessed January 31, 2019

26. Lopez WD, Kruger DJ, Delva J, Llanes M, Ledón C, Waller A, et al. Health Implications of an Immigration Raid: Findings from a Latino Community in the Midwestern United States. J Immigr Minor Health 2017;19:702–8. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0390-6 27041120

27. National Immigration Law Center. Rights: Immigration Enforcement at Health Care Facilities [Internet]. National Immigration Law Center. 2019 [cited 27 August 2019]. Available from:https://www.nilc.org/get-involved/community-education-resources/know-your-rights/health-provider-patient-rights-imm-enf/

28. LA County Office of Immigrant Affairs. Your Rights [Internet]. LA County Office of Immigrant Affairs. 2019 [cited 27 August 2019]. Available from: http://oia.lacounty.gov/know-your-rights/

29. Asad AL, Clair M. Racialized legal status as a social determinant of health. Soc Sci Med 2018;199:19–28. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.03.010 28359580

30. Samra S, Taira BR, Pinheiro E, Trotzky-Sirr R, Schneberk T. Undocumented Patients in the Emergency Department: Challenges and Opportunities. West J Emerg Med. 2019 Aug 12. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2019.7.41489 [Epub ahead of print]

31. Castaneda H, Holmes SM, Madrigal DS, Young ME, Beyeler N, Quesada J. Immigration as a social determinant of health. Annu Rev Public Health 2015;36:375–92. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182419 25494053

32. Cavazos-Rehg PA, Zayas LH, Spitznagel EL. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99:1126–31. 17987916

33. Statement on Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Reporting in Immigrant Communities NR18122ra [Internet]. Los Angeles (CA): Los Angeles Police Department; 2019 Apr 27 [cited 2019 Oct 10]. Available from: http://www.lapdonline.org/central_news/news_view/63831

34. Fetters A. When Fear of Deportation Keeps Families From Help After a Shooting [Internet]. The Atlantic. 2019 [updated 2019 Aug 4; cited 27 Aug 2019]. Available from: https://amp.theatlantic.com/amp/article/595441/

35. Náñez DM, Moroti K, Warnock S, Hawthorne T, Alvarado M, Yasukawa M, et al. After El Paso, Latinos across America voice a new kind of fear [Internet]. Mclean (VA): USA Today Network, azcentral; 2019 Aug 16 [updated 2019 Aug 17; cited 2019 Aug 26]. Available from: https://www.azcentral.com/in-depth/news/nation/2019/08/16/el-paso-texas-mass-shooting-latino-hispanic-reaction-fears/1992555001/.

36. Kimberlin CL, Winterstein AG. Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:2276–84. doi: 10.2146/ajhp070364 19020196


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10