Consumption of rice, acceptability and sensory qualities of fortified rice amongst consumers of social safety net rice in Nepal

Autoři: Anjana Rai aff001;  Macha Raja Maharjan aff001;  Helen A. Harris Fry aff002;  Parbati K. Chhetri aff001;  Purna Chandra Wasti aff003;  Naomi M. Saville aff001
Působiště autorů: Nutrition Section, UN World Food Programme Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal aff001;  Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, England, United Kingdom aff002;  Department of Food Technology and Quality Control, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Kathmandu, Nepal aff003;  Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222903



Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Nepal where starchy foods constitute a large proportion of diets and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods is inadequate. We conducted a study to determine whether rice would be an appropriate vehicle for micronutrient fortification in Nepal.

Materials and methods

In Bajura in remote rural Nepal, we conducted a household survey to characterize rice intakes in 195 households, and a double-blinded acceptability test with 177 social safety net rice consumers ≥18 years of age. Of these, 168 tasted fortified and unfortified rice to assess whether respondents could differentiate between fortified and non-fortified rice and their sensory properties. Rice was fortified by blending hot extruded kernels containing 6 micronutrients together with non-fortified rice at a 1:99 ratio. We used binomial tests to assess whether participants could correctly differentiate fortified rice, from non-fortified rice and paired t-tests to compare scores for sensory qualities of cooked fortified and non-fortified rice. We used multiple regression to test associations between per capita consumption and age, gender, wealth and food security.


Per capita consumption of rice (median 216g/day, IQR 144.0, 288.0) did not vary by wealth but was +52.08g, (95% CI 10.43, 93.72) higher amongst moderately to severely food insecure households compared with food secure / mildly food insecure. Most respondents could not differentiate fortified rice from non-fortified rice: 37.5% identified uncooked fortified rice and 39.3% cooked rice, which was not different from the 33% expected by chance (p = 0.22 and p = 0.09 respectively). The sensory qualities of fortified rice were acceptable (scoring 3.9 out of 5) and did not differ from non-fortified rice (p>0.05).


A rice fortification programme implemented through the Nepal Food Corporation’s social safety nets has potential because purchase and consumption of rice is high and fortified rice is acceptable among consumers in remote food insecure areas of Nepal.

Klíčová slova:

Cereal crops – Diet – Food – Food consumption – Livestock – Nepal – Rice – Surveys


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