Americans preferred Syrian refugees who are female, English-speaking, and Christian on the eve of Donald Trump’s election


Autoři: Claire L. Adida aff001;  Adeline Lo aff002;  Melina R. Platas aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States of America aff001;  Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States of America aff002;  Division of Social Science, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222504

Souhrn

What types of refugees do Americans prefer for admission into the United States? Scholars have explored the immigrant characteristics that appeal to Americans and the characteristics that Europeans prioritize in asylum-seekers, but we currently do not know which refugee characteristics Americans prefer. We conduct a conjoint experiment on a representative sample of 1800 US adults, manipulating refugee attributes in pairs of Syrian refugee profiles, and ask respondents to rate each refugee’s appeal. Our focus on Syrian refugees in a 2016 survey experiment allows us to speak to the concurrent refugee crisis on the eve of a polarizing election, while also identifying religious discrimination, holding constant the refugee’s national origin. We find that Americans prefer Syrian refugees who are female, high-skilled, English-speaking, and Christian, suggesting they prioritize refugee integration into the U.S. labor and cultural markets. We find that the preference for female refugees is not driven by the desire to exclude Muslim male refugees, casting doubt that American preferences at the time were motivated by security concerns. Finally, we find that anti-Muslim bias in refugee preferences varies in magnitude across key subgroups, though it prevails across all sample demographics.

Klíčová slova:

Culture – Elections – Religion – Surveys – United States – Economics of migration – National security – Psychological attitudes


Zdroje

1. Hainmueller J, Hopkins DJ. The Hidden American Immigration Consensus: A Conjoint Analysis of Attitudes toward Immigrants. American Journal of Political Science. 2015;59(3):529–548. doi: 10.1111/ajps.12138

2. Bansak K, Hainmueller J, Hangartner D. How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers. Science. 2016;354(6309):217–222. doi: 10.1126/science.aag2147 27708060

3. Lajevardi Nazita and Abrajano Marisa A. How negative sentiment towards Muslim Americans predicts support for Trump in the 2016 Presidential election. The Journal of Politics. 2019;81(1):296–302. doi: 10.1086/700001

4. Adida CL, Laitin DD, Valfort MA. Why Muslim integration fails in Christian-heritage societies. Harvard University Press; 2016.

5. Hainmueller J, Hopkins DJ. Public attitudes toward immigration. Annual Review of Political Science. 2014;17:225–249. doi: 10.1146/annurev-polisci-102512-194818

6. Dancygier R. Immigration and conflict in Europe. Cambridge University Press; 2010.

7. Malhotra N, Margalit Y, Mo CH. Economic explanations for opposition to immigration: distinguishing between prevalence and conditional impact. American Journal of Political Science. 2013;57(2):391–410. doi: 10.1111/ajps.12012

8. Learn About the Refugee Application Process. USCIS. 2009. September 3. Available at: www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/refugees-asylum/refugees Last accessed: 7 September 2019.

9. Wike, R, Stokes B, Simmons K. Europeans Fear Wave of Refugees Will Mean More Terrorism, Fewer Jobs. Pew Research Center.

10. Igielnik, Ruth and Jens Manuel Krogstad. Where refugees to the U.S. come from. Pew Research Center. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/02/03/where-refugees-to-the-u-s-come-from/ Last Accessed: 16 July 2019.

11. Lajevardi Nazita and Kassra Oskooii. Old-fashioned racism, contemporary islamophobia, and the isolation of Muslim Americans in the age of Trump. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and Politics. 2018;3(1):112–152. doi: 10.1017/rep.2017.37

12. Ward Dalston G. Public attitudes toward young immmigrant men. American Political Science Review. 2019;113(1):264–269. doi: 10.1017/S0003055418000710

13. UNHCR. Mid-Year Trends 2017. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; 2018.

14. Newman B. Who supports Syrians? The relative importance of religion, partisanship, and partisan news. PS: Political Science and Politics. 2018; p. 1–7.

15. Sniderman P, Hagendoorn L, Prior M. Predisposing Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities. American Political Science Review. 2004;98(1):35–49. doi: 10.1017/S000305540400098X

16. Barberá P, Casas A, Nagler J, Egan PJ, Bonneau R, Jost JT, Tucker JA. Who leads? Who follows? Measuring issue attention and agenda setting by legislators and the mass public using social media data. American Political Science Review. 2019;1–19.

17. Esses V, Hamilton LK, Gaucher D. The Global Refugee Crisis: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications for Improving Public Attitudes and Facilitating Refugee Resettlement Social Issues and Policy Review. 2017;11(1):78–123. doi: 10.1111/sipr.12028

18. Adida CL, Lo A, Platas MR. Perspective taking can promote short-term inclusionary behavior toward Syrian refugees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(38):9521–9526. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1804002115

19. Bohm R, Theelen MMP, Rusch H, Van Lange PAM. Costs, needs, and integration efforts shape helping behavior toward refugees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(28):7284–7289. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1805601115

20. Hangartner D, Dinas E, Marbach M, Matakos K, Xefteris D. Does Exposure to the Refugee Crisis Make Natives More Hostile? American Political Science Review. 2019;113(2):442–455. doi: 10.1017/S0003055418000813

21. Kennedy C, Mercer A, Keeter S, Hatley N, McGeeney K, Gimenez A. Evaluating online nonprobability surveys: vendor choice matters; widespread errors found for estimates based on blacks and Hispanics. Pew Research Center. 2016. Available at: https://www.pewresearch.org/methods/2016/05/02/evaluating-online-nonprobability-surveys/ Last Accessed: 21 July 2019.

22. Hainmueller J, Hopkins DJ, Yamamoto T. Causal inference in conjoint analysis: Understanding multidimensional choices via stated preference experiments. Political Analysis. 2014;22(1):1–30. doi: 10.1093/pan/mpt024

23. Hainmueller J, Hangartner D, Yamamoto T. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2015;112(8):2395–2400. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1416587112

24. Herschfeld Davis J, Sengupta D. Trump administration rejects study showing positive impact of refugees. New York Times. 2017. September 18. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/18/us/politics/refugees-revenue-cost-report-trump.html Last accessed: 15 July 2019.

25. Refugees to be assessed on ability to ‘assimilate’. PRI’s The World. 2017. October 18. Available at: https://www.pri.org/stories/2017-10-18/refugees-be-assessed-ability-assimilate Last accessed: 15 July 2019.

26. Dafoe A, Zhang B, Caughey D. Information Equivalence in Survey Experiments. Political Analysis. 2018;26(4):399–416. doi: 10.1017/pan.2018.9

27. Hainmueller J, Hangartner D. Does direct democracy hurt immigrant minorities? Evidence from naturalization decisions in Switzerland. American Journal of Political Science. 2019. doi: 10.1111/ajps.12433

28. Butler DM, Nickerson DW. Can Learning Constituency Opinion Affect How Legislators Vote? Results from a Field Experiment. Quarterly Journal of Political Science. 2011;6:55–83. doi: 10.1561/100.00011019

29. Hainmueller J, Hiscox MJ. Educated preferences: explaining attitudes toward immigration in Europe. International Organization. 2007;61(2):399–442. doi: 10.1017/S0020818307070142

30. Golshan, Tara. Most American Voters Prioritize the Economy. Republicans Are Voting on National Security. Vox Available at www.vox.com/2018/5/3/17314664/2018-midterm-polls-policy-priority-voters/ Last Accessed: 6 September 2019.

31. Leeper, Thomas J, Sara B Hobolt, and James Tilley. Measuring subgroup preferences in conjoint experiments. Political Analysis. Forthcoming.

32. Dinas, Elias, Vasiliki Fouka, and Alain Schläpfer. Family history and attitudes toward outgroups: evidence from the European refugee crisis. Working paper. 2019. Available at: https://vfouka.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4871/f/dfs2019.pdf Last Accessed: 22 July 2019.

33. Hobbs W, Lajevardi N. Effects of Divisive Campaigns on the Day-to-Day Segregation of Arab and Muslim Americans American Political Science Review. 2019;113(1):270–276. doi: 10.1017/S0003055418000801

34. Mitts T. From Isolation to Radicalization: Anti-Muslim Hostility and Support for ISIS in the West American Political Science Review. 2019;113(1):173–194. doi: 10.1017/S0003055418000618

35. Hartig, Hannah. Republicans turn more negative toward refugees as number admitted to U.S. plummets. Pew Research Center. 2018. Available at: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/05/24/republicans-turn-more-negative-toward-refugees-as-number-admitted-to-u-s-plummets/ Last Accessed: 16 July 2019.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Kurzy

Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Léčba bolesti v ordinaci praktického lékaře
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. PhDr. Zdeňka Nováková, Ph.D.

Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Léčba akutní pooperační bolesti
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Jiří Málek, CSc.

Nové antipsychotikum kariprazin v léčbě schizofrenie
Autoři: prof. MUDr. Cyril Höschl, DrSc., FRCPsych.

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se