Inactivation of chronic wasting disease prions using sodium hypochlorite


Autoři: Katie Williams aff001;  Andrew G. Hughson aff001;  Bruce Chesebro aff001;  Brent Race aff001
Působiště autorů: Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223659

Souhrn

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that can infect deer, elk and moose. CWD has now been detected in 26 states of the USA, 3 Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway, Sweden and Finland. CWD continues to spread from endemic areas, and new foci of infections are frequently detected. As increasing numbers of cervids become infected, the likelihood for human exposure increases. To date, no cases of CWD infection in humans have been confirmed, but experience with the BSE zoonosis in the United Kingdom suggests exposure to CWD should be minimized. Specifically, hunters, meat processors and others in contact with tissues from potentially CWD-infected cervids need a practical method to decontaminate knives, saws and other equipment. Prions are notoriously difficult to inactivate, and most effective methods require chemicals or sterilization processes that are either dangerous, caustic, expensive or not readily available. Although corrosive, sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is widely available and affordable and has been shown to inactivate prion agents including those that cause scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In the current study, we confirm that bleach is an effective disinfectant for CWD prions and establish minimum times and bleach concentrations to eliminate prion seeding activity from stainless steel and infected brain homogenate solutions. We found that a five-minute treatment with a 40% dilution of household bleach was effective at inactivating CWD seeding activity from stainless-steel wires and CWD-infected brain homogenates. However, bleach was not able to inactivate CWD seeding activity from solid tissues in our studies.

Klíčová slova:

Animal prion diseases – Deer – Equipment – Prion diseases – Chronic wasting disease – Prions – Hypochlorites – Mules


Zdroje

1. Williams ES, Young S. Chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform encephalopathy. J Wildl Dis. 1980;16(1):89–98. Epub 1980/01/01. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-16.1.89 7373730.

2. Bruce ME, Will RG, Ironside JW, McConnell I, Drummond D, Suttie A, et al. Transmissions to mice indicate that 'new variant' CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature. 1997;389(6650):498–501. Epub 1997/10/23 22:27. doi: 10.1038/39057 9333239.

3. Taylor DM. Inactivation of transmissible degenerative encephalopathy agents: A review. Vet J. 2000;159(1):10–7. Epub 2000/01/21. doi: 10.1053/tvjl.1999.0406 10640408.

4. Brown P, Rohwer RG, Gajdusek DC. Newer data on the inactivation of scrapie virus or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus in brain tissue. J Infect Dis. 1986;153(6):1145–8. Epub 1986/06/01. doi: 10.1093/infdis/153.6.1145 3084671.

5. Brown P, Rohwer RG, Green EM, Gajdusek DC. Effect of chemicals, heat, and histopathologic processing on high-infectivity hamster-adapted scrapie virus. J Infect Dis. 1982;145(5):683–7. Epub 1982/05/01. doi: 10.1093/infdis/145.2.683 6804575.

6. Kimberlin RH, Walker CA, Millson GC, Taylor DM, Robertson PA, Tomlinson AH, et al. Disinfection studies with two strains of mouse-passaged scrapie agent. Guidelines for Creutzfeldt-Jakob and related agents. J Neurol Sci. 1983;59(3):355–69. Epub 1983/06/01. doi: 10.1016/0022-510x(83)90021-7 6308174.

7. Hartley EG. Action of disinfectants on experimental mouse scrapie. Nature. 1967;213(5081):1135. Epub 1967/03/18. doi: 10.1038/2131135a0 6029799.

8. Hughson AG, Race B, Kraus A, Sangare LR, Robins L, Groveman BR, et al. Inactivation of Prions and Amyloid Seeds with Hypochlorous Acid. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12(9):e1005914. Epub 2016/09/30. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005914 27685252; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5042475 following competing interests: DT is founder and CEO of BrioTech Inc, which sells BrioHOClTM. A gift from BrioTech was used to support the work at UW Bothell lead by LR. JFW is Chief Scientific Officer, corporate executive and shareholder of Briotech Inc.

9. Taylor DM, Fraser H, McConnell I, Brown DA, Brown KL, Lamza KA, et al. Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. Arch Virol. 1994;139(3–4):313–26. Epub 1994/01/01. doi: 10.1007/bf01310794 7832638.

10. Brown P, Gibbs CJ Jr., Amyx HL, Kingsbury DT, Rohwer RG, Sulima MP, et al. Chemical disinfection of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus. N Engl J Med. 1982;306(21):1279–82. Epub 1982/05/27. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198205273062107 7040968.

11. Walker AS, Inderlied CB, Kingsbury DT. Conditions for the chemical and physical inactivation of the K. Fu. strain of the agent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Am J Public Health. 1983;73(6):661–5. Epub 1983/06/01. doi: 10.2105/ajph.73.6.661 6342430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1650862.

12. Giles K, Glidden DV, Beckwith R, Seoanes R, Peretz D, DeArmond SJ, et al. Resistance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions to inactivation. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4(11):e1000206. Epub 2008/11/15. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000206 19008948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2576443.

13. Bian J, Kang HE, Telling GC. Quinacrine promotes replication and conformational mutation of chronic wasting disease prions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(16):6028–33. Epub 2014/04/09. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322377111 24711410; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4000840.

14. Cronier S, Beringue V, Bellon A, Peyrin JM, Laude H. Prion strain- and species-dependent effects of antiprion molecules in primary neuronal cultures. J Virol. 2007;81(24):13794–800. Epub 2007/10/05. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01502-07 17913812; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168876.

15. Peretz D, Supattapone S, Giles K, Vergara J, Freyman Y, Lessard P, et al. Inactivation of prions by acidic sodium dodecyl sulfate. J Virol. 2006;80(1):322–31. Epub 2005/12/15. doi: 10.1128/JVI.80.1.322-331.2006 16352557; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1317507.

16. Wilham JM, Orru CD, Bessen RA, Atarashi R, Sano K, Race B, et al. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6(12):e1001217. Epub 2010/12/15. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001217 21152012; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2996325.

17. Vascellari S, Orru CD, Hughson AG, King D, Barron R, Wilham JM, et al. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48969. Epub 2012/11/10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048969 23139828; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3489776.

18. Elder AM, Henderson DM, Nalls AV, Wilham JM, Caughey BW, Hoover EA, et al. In vitro detection of prionemia in TSE-infected cervids and hamsters. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80203. Epub 2013/11/14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080203 24224043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3815098.

19. Henderson DM, Manca M, Haley NJ, Denkers ND, Nalls AV, Mathiason CK, et al. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74377. Epub 2013/09/17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074377 24040235; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3770611.

20. Henderson DM, Davenport KA, Haley NJ, Denkers ND, Mathiason CK, Hoover EA. Quantitative assessment of prion infectivity in tissues and body fluids by real-time quaking-induced conversion. J Gen Virol. 2015;96(Pt 1):210–9. Epub 2014/10/12. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.069906-0 25304654; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4268821.

21. Meade-White K, Race B, Trifilo M, Bossers A, Favara C, Lacasse R, et al. Resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein. J Virol. 2007;81(9):4533–9. Epub 2007/02/23. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02762-06 17314157; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1900179.

22. Raymond GJ, Bossers A, Raymond LD, O'Rourke KI, McHolland LE, Bryant PK 3rd, et al. Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease. EMBO J. 2000;19(17):4425–30. Epub 2000/09/06. doi: 10.1093/emboj/19.17.4425 10970836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC302048.

23. Race B, Meade-White KD, Miller MW, Barbian KD, Rubenstein R, LaFauci G, et al. Susceptibilities of nonhuman primates to chronic wasting disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(9):1366–76. doi: 10.3201/eid1509.090253 19788803; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2819871.

24. Race B, Williams K, Chesebro B. Transmission studies of chronic wasting disease to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein using the RT-QuIC assay. Vet Res. 2019;50(1):6. Epub 2019/01/24. doi: 10.1186/s13567-019-0626-2 30670087; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6341683.

25. Fukuzaki S. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes. Biocontrol Sci. 2006;11(4):147–57. Epub 2006/12/28. 17190269.

26. Edgeworth JA, Jackson GS, Clarke AR, Weissmann C, Collinge J. Highly sensitive, quantitative cell-based assay for prions adsorbed to solid surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(9):3479–83. Epub 2009/02/11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0813342106 19204279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2637901.

27. Mori T, Atarashi R, Furukawa K, Takatsuki H, Satoh K, Sano K, et al. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24993. Epub 2016/04/27. doi: 10.1038/srep24993 27112110; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4845018.

28. Zobeley E, Flechsig E, Cozzio A, Enari M, Weissmann C. Infectivity of scrapie prions bound to a stainless steel surface. Mol Med. 1999;5(4):240–3. Epub 1999/08/17. 10448646; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2230327.

29. Flechsig E, Hegyi I, Enari M, Schwarz P, Collinge J, Weissmann C. Transmission of scrapie by steel-surface-bound prions. Mol Med. 2001;7(10):679–84. Epub 2001/11/20. 11713367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1949999.

30. Yan ZX, Stitz L, Heeg P, Pfaff E, Roth K. Infectivity of prion protein bound to stainless steel wires: a model for testing decontamination procedures for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(4):280–3. Epub 2004/04/28. doi: 10.1086/502392 15108723.

31. Fichet G, Comoy E, Duval C, Antloga K, Dehen C, Charbonnier A, et al. Novel methods for disinfection of prion-contaminated medical devices. Lancet. 2004;364(9433):521–6. Epub 2004/08/11. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16810-4 15302195.

32. Jackson GS, McKintosh E, Flechsig E, Prodromidou K, Hirsch P, Linehan J, et al. An enzyme-detergent method for effective prion decontamination of surgical steel. J Gen Virol. 2005;86(Pt 3):869–78. Epub 2005/02/22. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.80484-0 15722550.

33. Nakano Y, Akamatsu N, Mori T, Sano K, Satoh K, Nagayasu T, et al. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0156058. Epub 2016/05/26. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156058 27223116; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4880284.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10

Nejčtenější v tomto čísle

Tomuto tématu se dále věnují…


Kurzy

Zvyšte si kvalifikaci online z pohodlí domova

Léčba bolesti v ordinaci praktického lékaře
nový kurz
Autoři: MUDr. PhDr. Zdeňka Nováková, Ph.D.

Revmatoidní artritida: včas a k cíli
Autoři: MUDr. Heřman Mann

Jistoty a nástrahy antikoagulační léčby aneb kardiolog - neurolog - farmakolog - nefrolog - právník diskutují
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Štěpán Havránek, Ph.D., prof. MUDr. Roman Herzig, Ph.D., doc. MUDr. Karel Urbánek, Ph.D., prim. MUDr. Jan Vachek, MUDr. et Mgr. Jolana Těšínová, Ph.D.

Léčba akutní pooperační bolesti
Autoři: doc. MUDr. Jiří Málek, CSc.

Nové antipsychotikum kariprazin v léčbě schizofrenie
Autoři: prof. MUDr. Cyril Höschl, DrSc., FRCPsych.

Všechny kurzy
Kurzy Doporučená témata Časopisy
Přihlášení
Zapomenuté heslo

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se

Zapomenuté heslo

Zadejte e-mailovou adresu se kterou jste vytvářel(a) účet, budou Vám na ni zaslány informace k nastavení nového hesla.

Přihlášení

Nemáte účet?  Registrujte se