Are we ready for scaling up restoration actions? An insight from Mediterranean macroalgal canopies

Autoři: Laura Tamburello aff001;  Loredana Papa aff003;  Giuseppe Guarnieri aff001;  Laura Basconi aff004;  Serena Zampardi aff001;  Maria Beatrice Scipione aff002;  Antonio Terlizzi aff001;  Valerio Zupo aff002;  Simonetta Fraschetti aff001
Působiště autorů: CoNISMa, Roma, Italy aff001;  Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli, Italy aff002;  Department of Biology, and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy aff003;  Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy aff004;  Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy aff005;  Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224477


Extensive loss of macroalgal forests advocates for large-scale restoration interventions, to compensate habitat degradation and recover the associated ecological functions and services. Yet, restoration attempts have generally been limited to small spatial extensions, with the principal aim of developing efficient restoration techniques. Here, the success of outplanting Cystoseira amentacea v. stricta germlings cultured in aquaria was experimentally explored at a scale of tens of kms, by means of a multifactorial experimental design. In the intertidal rocky shores of SE Italy, locations with a continuous distribution for hundreds of meters or with few thalli forming patches of few centimeters of C. amentacea canopy were selected. In each location, the effects of adult conspecifics and the exclusion of macrograzers (salema fish and sea urchins) on the survival of germlings were tested. We evaluated the most critical determinants of mortality for germlings, including the overlooked pressure of mesograzers (e.g. amphipods, small mollusks, polychaetes). Despite the high mortality observed during outplanting and early settlement stages, survival of C. amentacea germlings was consistently favored by the exclusion of macrograzers, while the presence of adult conspecifics had no effects. In addition, the cost analysis of the interventions showed the feasibility of the ex-situ method, representing an essential tool for preserving Cystoseira forests. Large scale restoration is possible but requires baseline information with an in-depth knowledge of the species ecology and of the areas to be restored, together with the development of specific cultivation protocols to make consistently efficient restoration interventions.

Klíčová slova:

Algae – Analysis of variance – Death rates – Experimental design – Forests – Grazing – Herbivory – Sea urchins


1. Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D'Agrosa C, et al. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 2008; 319: 948–952. doi: 10.1126/science.1149345 18276889

2. Filbee-Dexter K, Scheibling RE. Sea urchin barrens as alternative stable states of collapsed kelp ecosystems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2014; 495: 1–25. doi: 10.3354/meps10573

3. Lotze HK, Lenihan HS, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke RG, Kay MC, et al. Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 2006; 312: 1806–1809. doi: 10.1126/science.1128035 16794081

4. Lotze HK, Coll M, Magera AM, Ward-Paige C, Airoldi L. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol. 2011; 26: 595–605. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2011.07.008 21852017

5. Abelson A, Halpern BS, Reed DC, Orth RJ, Kendrick GA, Beck MW, et al. Upgrading marine ecosystem restoration using ecological-social concepts. Bioscience 2016; 66: 156–163. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biv171 26977115

6. Bayraktarov E, Saunders MI, Abdullah S, Mills M, Behr J, Possingham HP, et al. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Ecol Appl. 2016; 26: 1055–1074. doi: 10.1890/15-1077 27509748

7. Thibaut T, Pinedo S, Torras X, Ballesteros E. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Alberes coast (France, North-western Mediterranean). Mar Pollut Bull. 2005; 50: 1472–1489. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.014 16026805

8. Airoldi L, Beck MW. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanogr Mar Biol. 2007; 45: 347–407. doi: 10.1201/9781420050943.ch7

9. Sales M, Cebrian E, Tomas F, Ballesteros E. Pollution impacts and recovery potential in three species of the genus Cystoseira (Fucales, Heterokontophyta). Estuar Coast Shelf S. 2011; 92: 347–357. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.01.008

10. Steneck RS, Graham MH, Borque BJ, Corbett D, Erlandson JM, Estes JA, et al. Kelp forest ecosystems, biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Env Cons. 2002; 29: 436–459. doi: 10.1017/S0376892902000322

11. Martínez EA, Cárdenas L. Recovery and genetic diversity of the intertidal kelp Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae) 20 years after El Niño. J Phycol. 2003; 39: 504–508. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02191.x

12. Moy FE, Christie H. Large-scale shift from sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) to ephemeral algae along the south and west coast of Norway. Mar Biol Res. 2012; 8: 309–321 doi: 10.1080/17451000.2011.637561

13. Filbee-Dexter K, Feehan CJ, Scheibling RE. Large-scale degradation of a kelp ecosystem in an ocean warming hotspot. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2016; 543: 141–152. doi: 10.3354/meps11554

14. Connell SD, Russell BD, Turner DJ, Shepherd SA, Kildea T, Miller D, Airoldi L, Cheshire A. Recovering a lost baseline: missing kelp forests from a metropolitan coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2008; 360: 63–72. doi: 10.3354/meps07526

15. Smale DA, Wernberg T. Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species. P R Soc B 2013; 280: 20122829. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2829 23325774

16. Bianchi C, Corsini-Foka M, Morri C, Zenetos A. Thirty years after—dramatic change in the coastal marine habitats of Kos Island (Greece), 1981–2013. Mediterr Mar Sci. 2014; 15(3): 482–497. doi: 10.12681/mms.678

17. Thibaut T, Blanfuné A, Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M. Decline and local extinction of Fucales in the French Riviera: the harbinger of future extinctions? Mediterr Mar Sci. 2015; 16/1: 206–224. doi: 10.12681/mms.1032

18. Perkol-Finkel S, Airoldi A. Loss and recovery potential of marine habitats: an experimental study of factors maintaining resilience in subtidal algal forests at the Adriatic Sea. PLoS ONE 2010; 5(5): e10791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010791 20520726

19. Iveša L, Djakovac T, Devescovi M. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016; 106: 162–173. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.03.010 26975612

20. Gianni F, Bartolini F, Airoldi L, Ballesteros E, Francour P, Guidetti P, et al. Conservation and restoration of marine forests in the Mediterranean Sea and the potential role of Marine Protected Areas. AIOL 2013; 4: 83–101. doi: 10.1080/19475721.2013.845604

21. Jacob C, Buffard A, Pioch S, Thorin S. Marine ecosystem restoration and biodiversity offset. Ecol Eng. 2018; 120: 595–594. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007

22. Correa JA, Lagos NA, Medina MH, Castilla JC, Cerda M, Ramírez M, et al. Experimental transplants of the large kelp Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae) in high-energy wave exposed rocky intertidal habitats of northern Chile: experimental restoration and management applications. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 2006; 335: 13–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.02.010

23. Campbell AH, Marzinelli EM, Vergés A, Coleman MA, Steinberg PD. Towards restoration of missing underwater forests. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(1):e84106. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084106 24416198

24. Westermeir R, Murúa P, Patiño DJ, Muñoz L, Müller DG. Holdfast fragmentation of Macrocystis pyrifera (integrifolia morph) and Lessonia berteroana in Atacama (Chile): a novel approach for kelp bed restoration. J Appl Phycol. 2016; 28: 2969–2977. doi: 10.1007/s10811-016-0827-2

25. Falace A, Zanelli E, Bressan G. Algal transplantation as a potential tool for artificial reef management and environmental mitigation. Bull Mar Sci. 2006; 78: 161–166.

26. Susini ML, Mangialajo L, Thibaut T, Meinesz A. Development of a transplantation technique of Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta and Cystoseira compressa. Hydrobiologia 2007; 580: 241–244. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6156-1_21

27. Mangialajo L, Chiantore M, Susini ML, Meinesz A, Cattaneo-Vietti R, Thibaut T. Zonation patterns and interspecific relationships of fucoids in microtidal environments. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 2012; 412: 72–80. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.10.031

28. Perkol-Finkel S, Ferrario F, Nicotera V, Airoldi L. Conservation challenges in urban seascapes: promoting the growth of threatened species on coastal infrastructures. J Appl Ecol. 2012: 49: 1457–1466. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02204.x

29. Robvieux P. Conservation des populations de Cystoseira en regions Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur et Corse. 2013 PhD dissertation, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France

30. De La Fuente G, Chiantore M, Asnaghi V, Kaleb S, Falace A. First ex situ outplanting of the habitat-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta from a restoration perspective. PeerJ 2019; 7:e7290. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7290 31367482

31. Piazzi L, Ceccherelli G. Concomitance of oligotrophy and low grazing pressure is essential for the resilience of Mediterranean subtidal forests. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017; 123: 197–204. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.061 28886921

32. Rindi L, Dal Bello M, Benedetti-Cecchi L. Experimental evidence of spatial signatures of approaching regime shifts in macroalgal canopies. Ecology 2018; 99: 1709–1715. doi: 10.1002/ecy.2391 29797316

33. Falace A, Kaleb S, De La Fuente G, Asnaghi V, Chiantore M. Ex situ cultivation protocol for Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) from a restoration perspective. PLoS ONE 2018; 13(2): e0193011. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193011 29447238

34. Gianni F, Bartolini F, Airoldi L, Mangialajo L. Reduction of herbivorous fish pressure can facilitate focal algal species forestation on artificial structures. Mar Environ Res. 2018; 138: 102–109. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.04.007 29706367

35. Hereu B. Depletion of palatable algae by sea urchins and fishes in a Mediterranean subtidal community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2006; 313: 95–103. doi: 10.3354/meps313095

36. Agnetta D, Badalamenti F, Ceccherelli G, Di Trapani F, Bonaviri C, Gianguzza P. Role of two co-occurring Mediterranean Sea urchins in the formation of barren from Cystoseira canopy. Estuar Coast Shelf S. 2015; 152: 73–77. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.11.023

37. Gianni F, Bartolini F, Pey A, Laurent M, Martins GM, Airoldi L, et al. Threats to large brown algal forests in temperate seas: the overlooked role of native herbivorous fish. Sci Rep. 2017; 7: 6012. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06394-7 28729633

38. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Cinelli F. Effects of canopy cover, herbivores and substratum type on patterns of Cystoseira spp. settlement and recruitment in littoral rockpools. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 1992; 90: 183–191. doi: 10.3354/meps090183

39. Duffy JE, Hay ME. Strong impacts of grazing amphipods on the organization of a benthic community. Ecol Monogr 2000; 70:237–263. doi: 10.1890/0012-9615(2000)070[0237:SIOGAO]2.0.CO;2

40. Vadas RL, Johnson S, Norton TA. Recruitment and mortality of early post-settlement stages of benthic algae. Brit Phycol J. 1992; 27: 331–351. doi: 10.1080/00071619200650291

41. Schiel DR, Foster MS. The population biology of large brown seaweeds. Ecological consequences of multiphase life histories in dynamic coastal environments. Annu Rev Ecol Evol S. 2006; 37: 343–72. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110251

42. Irving AD, Balata D, Colosio F, Ferrando GA, Airoldi L. Light, sediment, temperature, and the early life-history of the habitat forming alga Cystoseira barbata. Mar Biol. 2009; 156: 1223–1231. doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1164-7

43. Piazzi L, Balata D, Ceccherelli G. Resilience of Cystoseira beds: lack of canopy effects on recruitment. Bot Mar. 2017; 60: 49–53. doi: 10.1515/bot-2016-0088

44. Buonomo R, Chefaoui RM, Bermejo Lacida R, Engelen AH, Serrão EA, Airoldi L. Predicted extinction of unique genetic diversity in marine forests of Cystoseira spp. Mar Env Res. 2018; 138: 119–128. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.04.013 29716751

45. Buonomo R, Assis J, Fernandes F, Engelen AH, Airoldi L, Serrão EA. Habitat continuity and stepping-stone oceanographic distances explain population genetic connectivity of the brown alga Cystoseira amentacea. Mol. Ecol. 2017; 26: 766–780. doi: 10.1111/mec.13960 27997043

46. Fraschetti S, Terlizzi A, Bussotti S, Guarnieri G, D’Ambrosio P, Boero F. Conservation of Mediterranean seascapes: analyses of existing protection schemes. Mar Environ Res. 2005; 59: 309–332. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2004.05.007 15589984

47. Fraschetti S, Guarnieri G, Bevilacqua S, Terlizzi A, Boero F. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(12): e81838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081838 24349135

48. Guarnieri G, Bevilacqua S, De Leo F, Farella G, Maffia A, Terlizzi A, et al. The challenge of planning conservation strategies in threatened seascapes: understanding the role of fine scale assessments of community response to cumulative human pressures. PLoS ONE 2016; 11(2): e0149253. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149253 26871942

49. Dethier MN, Graham ES, Cohen S, Tear LM. Visual versus random-point percent cover estimations: “objective” is not always better. Mar Ecol Progr Ser. 1993; 96: 93–100.

50. Bolker BM, Brooks ME, Clark CJ, Geange SW, Poulsen JR, Stevens MHH, White JSS. Generalize linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol. 2009; 24(3): 127–135. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008 19185386

51. Burnham KP, Anderson DR. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. 2002 Springer-Verlag

52. Zuur AF, Ieno EN, Smith GM. Analysing Ecological Data. 2007 Springer-Verlag

53. Crawley MJ. The R Book. 2012 Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom, Wiley.

54. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw. 2015; 67(1):1–48. doi: 10.18637/jss.v067.i01

55. Sandrini-Neto L, Camargo MG. GAD: an R package for ANOVA designs from general principles. 2014; Available on CRAN.

56. Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods. 2008; PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK 214 pp.

57. Anderson MJ. Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA). 2017 Wiley StatsRef doi: 10.1002/9781118445112.stat07841

58. Bray JR, Curtis JT. An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr. 1957; 27: 325–349. doi: 10.2307/1942268

59. Carney LT, Waaland JR, Klinger T, Ewing K. Restoration of the bull kelp Nereocystis luetkeana in nearshore rocky habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2005; 302: 49–61. doi: 10.3354/meps302049

60. Verdura J, Sales M, Ballesteros E, Cefalì ME, Cebrian E. Restoration of a canopy-forming alga based on recruitment enhancement: methods and long-term success assessment. Front Plant Sci. 2018; 9: 1832. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01832 30619405

61. Gunnill FC. Demography of the intertidal brown alga Pelvetia fastigiata in southern California, USA. Mar Biol. 1980; 59: 169–179. doi: 10.1007/BF00396865

62. Aberg P, Pavia H. Temporal and multiple scale spatial variation in juvenile and adult abundance of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 1997; 158: 111–119. doi: 10.3354/meps158111

63. Capdevila P, Linares C, Aspillaga E, Navarro L, Kersting DK, Hereu B. Recruitment patterns in the Mediterranean deep-water alga Cystoseira zosteroides. Mar Biol. 2015; 162: 1165–1174. doi: 10.1007/s00227-015-2658-0

64. Capdevila P, Linares C, Aspillaga E, Riera JL, Hereu B. Effective dispersal and density-dependence in mesophotic macroalgal forests: insights from the Mediterranean species Cystoseira zosteroides. PLoS ONE 2018; 13(1): e0191346. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191346 29329336

65. Steen H, Scrosati R. Intraspecific competition in Fucus serratus and F. evanescens (Phaeophyceae: Fucales) germlings: effects of settlement density, nutrient concentration, and temperature. Mar Biol. 2004; 144: 61–70. doi: 10.1007/s00227-003-1175-8

66. Lind AC, Konar B. Effects of abiotic stressors on kelp early life-history stages. 2017; Algae 32: 223–233. doi: 10.4490/algae.2017.32.8.7

67. Andrews S, Bennett S, Wernberg T. Reproductive seasonality and early life temperature sensitivity reflect vulnerability of a seaweed undergoing range reduction. 2014; Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 495: 119–129. doi: 10.3354/meps10567

68. Capdevila P, Hereu B, Salguero-Gómez R, la Rovira G, Medrano A, Cebrian E, Garrabou J, Kersting DK, Linares C. Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga. 2018; J Ecol. 1–12. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.13090

69. Bennett S, Wernberg T, de Bettignies T, Kendrick GA, Anderson RJ, Bolton JJ, Rodgers KL, Shears NT, Leclerc JC, Leveque L, Davoult D, Christie HC. Canopy interactions and physical stress gradients in subtidal communities. 2015, Ecol Lett. 18: 677–686. doi: 10.1111/ele.12446 25975532

70. Johnson LE, Brawley SH. Dispersal and recruitment of a canopy-forming intertidal alga: the relative roles of propagule availability and post-settlement processes. Oecologia 1998; 117: 517–526. doi: 10.1007/s004420050688 28307677

71. Konar B, Estes JA. The stability of boundary regions between kelp beds and deforested areas. Ecology 2003; 84: 174–185. doi: 10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[0174:TSOBRB]2.0.CO;2

72. Taylor DI, Schiel DR. Algal populations controlled by fish herbivory across a wave exposure gradient on southern temperate shores. Ecology 2010; 91: 201–211. doi: 10.1890/08-1512.1 20380209

73. Toohey B, Kendrick G, Wernberg T, Phillips J, Malkin S, Prince J. The effects of light and thallus scour from Ecklonia radiata canopy on an associated foliose algal assemblage: the importance of photoacclimation. Mar Biol. 2004; 144: 1019–1027. doi: 10.1007/s00227-003-1267-5

74. Wernberg T, Kendrick GA, Toohey BD. Modification of the physical environment by an Ecklonia radiata (Laminariales) canopy and implications for associated foliose algae. Aquat Ecol. 2005; 39: 419–430. doi: 10.1007/s10452-005-9009-z

75. Haring RN, Dethier MN, Williams SL. Desiccation facilitates wave-induced mortality of the intertidal alga Fucus gardneri. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2002; 232: 75–82. doi: 10.3354/meps232075

76. Kendrick GA. Effects of propagule settlement density and adult canopy on survival of recruits of Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae: Phaeophyta). Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 1994; 103: 129–140. doi: 10.3354/meps103129

77. Ferrario F, Iveša L, Jaklin A, Perkol-Finkel S, Airoldi L. The overlooked role of biotic factors in controlling the ecological performance of artificial marine habitats. J Appl Ecol. 2016; 53: 16–24. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12533

78. Benedetti-Cecchi L, Cinelli F. Habitat heterogeneity, sea urchins grazing and the distribution of algae in littoral rock pools on the west coast of Italy (western Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 1995; 126: 203–212. doi: 10.3354/meps126203

79. Bonaviri C, Vega Fernández T, Fanelli G, Badalamenti F, Gianguzza P. Leading role of the sea urchin Arbacia lixula in maintaining the barren state in southwesters Mediterranean. Mar Biol. 2011; 158: 2505–2513. doi: 10.1007/s00227-011-1751-2

80. Johnson LE, Paine RT. Consistency in a marine algal-grazer interaction over multiple scales. J Phycol. 2016; 52: 942–950. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12475 27711961

81. Zupo V, Alexander T, Edgar G. Relating trophic resources to community structure: a predictive index of food availability. R Soc Open Sci. 2017; 4: 160515. doi: 10.1098/rsos.160515 28386417

82. Sjøtun K, Eggereide SF, Høisaeter T. Grazer-controlled recruitment of the introduced Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) in northern Europe. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2007; 342: 127–138. doi: 10.3354/meps342127

83. Korpinen S, Jormalainen V. Grazing and nutrients reduce recruitment success of Fucus vesiculosus L. (Fucales: Phaeophyceae). Estuar Coast Shelf S. 2008; 78: 437–444. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.01.005

84. Henríquez LA, Buschmann AH, Maldonaldo MA, Graham MH, Hernández-González MC, Pereda SV, et al. Grazing on giant kelp microscopic phases and the recruitment success of annual populations of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in southern Chile. J Phycol. 2011; 47: 252–258. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00955.x 27021857

85. Chenelot H, Konar B. Lacuna vincta (Mollusca, Neotaenioglossa) herbivory on juvenile and adult Nereocystis luetkeana (Heterokontophyla, Laminariales). Hydrobiologia 2007; 583:107–118. doi: 10.1007/s10750-006-0484-6

86. Vergés A, Doropopoulos C, Malcolm HA, Skye M, Garcia-Pizá M, Marzinelli EM, Campbell AH, Ballesteros E, Hoey AS, Villa-Conceio A, Bozec YM, Steinberg PD. Long-term empirical evidence of ocean warming leading to tropicalization of fish communities, cincreased herbivory and loss of kelp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016; 113: 13791–13796. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610725113 27849585

87. Ballesteros E, Garrabou J, Hereu B, Zabala M, Cebrian E, Sala E. Deep-water stands of Cystoseira zosteroides C. Agardh (Fucales, Ochrophyta) in the Northwestern Mediterranean: insights into assemblage structure and population dynamics. Estuar Coast Shelf S. 2009; 82: 477–484. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.02.013

88. Guiry MD, Guiry GM. AlgaeBase. Worldwide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 19 December 2018

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10