Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory inhibition during seizure precedes death in the DBA/1 audiogenic mouse model of SUDEP


Autoři: William P. Schilling aff001;  Morgan K. McGrath aff001;  Tianen Yang aff002;  Patricia A. Glazebrook aff001;  Carl L. Faingold aff003;  Diana L. Kunze aff001
Působiště autorů: Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, MetroHealth Campus, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America aff001;  Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America aff002;  Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, United States of America aff003;  Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223468

Souhrn

This study was designed to evaluate cardiac and respiratory dysfunction in a mouse model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy i.e., SUDEP. We simultaneously monitored respiration via plethysmography and the electrocardiogram via telemetry before, during, and after an audiogenic seizure. DBA/1 mice responded to an acoustic stimulus with one or two cycles of circling and jumping before entering a clonic/tonic seizure. This was followed by death unless the mice were resuscitated by mechanical ventilation using room air. During the initial clonic phase, respiration declined and cardiac rhythm is slowed. By the tonic phase, respiration had ceased, atrial P-waves were absent or dissociated from the QRS complex, and heart rate had decreased from 771±11 to 252±16 bpm. Heart rate further deteriorated terminating in asystole unless the mice were resuscitated at the end of the tonic phase which resulted in abrupt recovery of P-waves and a return to normal sinus rhythm, associated with gasping. Interestingly, P-waves were preserved in the mice treated with methylatropine during the pre-ictal period (to block parasympathetic stimulation) and heart rate remained unchanged through the end of the tonic phase (765±8 vs. 748±21 bpm), but as in control, methylatropine treated mice died from respiratory arrest. These results demonstrate that a clonic/tonic seizure in the DBA/1 mouse results in abrupt and simultaneous respiratory and cardiac depression. Although death clearly results from respiratory arrest, our results suggest that seizure activates two central nervous system pathways in this model—one inhibits respiratory drive, whereas the other inhibits cardiac function via vagal efferents. The abrupt and simultaneous recovery of both respiration and cardiac function with mechanical ventilation within an early post-ictal timeframe shows that the vagal discharge can be rapidly terminated. Understanding the central mechanism associated with the abrupt cardiorespiratory dysfunction and equally abrupt recovery may provide clues for therapeutic targets for SUDEP.

Klíčová slova:

Cardiovascular physiology – Electrocardiography – Heart rate – Methylation – Mouse models – Resuscitation – Clonic seizures – Bradycardia


Zdroje

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2019 Číslo 10