Endothelial nitric oxide synthase limits host immunity to control disseminated Candida albicans infections in mice


Autoři: Dhammika H. Navarathna aff001;  Michail S. Lionakis aff002;  David D. Roberts aff001
Působiště autorů: Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America aff001;  Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223919

Souhrn

Three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) occur in mammals. High levels of NO produced by NOS2/iNOS can protect against bacterial and parasitic infections, but the role of NOS in fungal innate immunity is less clear. Compared to wild type mice, Nos3-/- mice showed significantly higher survival of candidemia caused by Candida albicans SC5314. NOS3/eNOS is expressed by endothelial cells in the kidney, and colonization of this organ was decreased during the sub-acute stage of disseminated candidiasis. Nos3-/- mice more rapidly eliminated Candida from the renal cortex and exhibited more balanced local inflammatory reactions, with similar macrophage but less neutrophil infiltration than in infected wild type. Levels of the serum cytokines IL-9, IL-12, IL-17 and chemokines GM-CSF, MIP1α, and MIP1β were significantly elevated, and IL-15 was significantly lower in infected Nos3-/- mice. Spleens of infected Nos3-/- mice had significantly more Th2 and Th9 but not other CD4+ T cells compared with wild type. Inflammatory genes associated with leukocyte chemotaxis, IL-1 signaling, TLR signaling and Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation pathways were significantly overexpressed in infected Nos3-/- kidneys, with Nos2 being the most strongly induced. Conversely, the general NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increased virulence in the mouse candidemia model, suggesting that iNOS contributes to the protective mechanism in infected Nos3-/- mice. By moderating neutrophil infiltration, the absence of eNOS may reduce the collateral damage to kidney cortex, and Th-9 CD4+ cells may enhance clearance of the infection. These data suggest that selective eNOS inhibition could mitigate candidemia by a combination of systemic and local responses that promote a more effective host immune response.

Klíčová slova:

Candida albicans – Candidiasis – Cytokines – Flow cytometry – Immune response – Inflammation – Kidneys – Nitric oxide


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PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10