Because you had a bad day: General and daily relations between reactive temperament, emotion regulation, and depressive symptoms in youth


Autoři: Marie-Lotte Van Beveren aff001;  Sofie Kuppens aff002;  Benjamin Hankin aff003;  Caroline Braet aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, East-Flanders, Belgium aff001;  Social Research Methodology Group, Centre for Sociological Research, KU Leuven, Leuven, Flemish-Brabant, Belgium aff002;  Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224126

Souhrn

Negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE) have repeatedly shown to act as vulnerability factors for youth depression. Less research examined the mechanisms through which these reactive temperament traits may differently confer vulnerability to depression. Based on recent integrated models of depression proposing emotion regulation as a key underlying mechanism, the current study aimed to clarify the general and day-to-day relations among temperament, emotion regulation strategies, and depressive symptoms in Dutch-speaking youth (35% boys; Mage = 13.27 years, SD = 1.98) using a cross-sectional (n = 495) and a 7-day daily diary design (n = 469). Self-reported temperament, trait rumination, trait positive refocusing, and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline. State rumination, state positive refocusing, and depressive symptoms were further assessed daily. Whereas results revealed that NE and PE interacted in predicting baseline and daily depressive symptoms, the cross-sectional analyses provide preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that NE and PE each provide unique pathways for understanding vulnerability to depression. Additional analyses in the daily diary study showed NE to be significantly related to trajectories of state rumination. Results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the associations between temperament, emotion regulation strategies, and depressive symptoms in youth.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Behavior – Cognition – Cognitive psychology – Cross-sectional studies – Depression – Emotions – Psychological stress


Zdroje

1. Balazs J. Adolescent Subthreshold Depression and Anxiety. European Psychiatry. 2013;28. WOS:000335460602023.

2. Burcusa SL, Iacono WG. Risk for recurrence in depression. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007;27(8):959–85. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.02.005 WOS:000251126200006. 17448579

3. Copeland WE, Shanahan L, Costello EJ, Angold A. Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders as Predictors of Young Adult Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2009;66(7):764–72. WOS:000267720200011. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.85 19581568

4. Nock MK, Green JG, Hwang I, McLaughlin KA, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. JAMA psychiatry. 2013;70(3):300–10. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapsychiatry.55 23303463

5. Hyde JS, Mezulis AH, Abramson LY. The ABCs of depression: integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological review. 2008;115(2):291. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.291 18426291

6. Yap MB, Allen NB, Sheeber L. Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders. Clinical child and family psychology review. 2007;10(2):180–96. doi: 10.1007/s10567-006-0014-0 17265137

7. Gross JJ. Handbook of emotion regulation: Guilford publications; 2013.

8. Rothbart M, Posner M, Hershey K. Developmental psychopathology: Theory and methods. 1995.

9. Rothbart M, Bates J. Temperament (In Damon W., Lerner R., & Eisenberg N.(Eds.). Handbook of child psychology. Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, pp. 99–166). New York: Wiley; 2006.

10. Muris P. Unique and interactive effects of neuroticism and effortful control on psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2006;40(7):1409–19. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.001 WOS:000237166700008.

11. Muris P, Meesters C, Blijlevens P. Self-reported reactive and regulative temperament in early adolescence: Relations to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and "Big Three" personality factors. Journal of Adolescence. 2007;30(6):1035–49. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.03.003 WOS:000251675100009. 17467051

12. Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Evans DE. Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2000;78(1):122–35. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.78.1.122 WOS:000084760900010. 10653510

13. Mezulis AH, Rudolph ME. Pathways linking temperament and depressive symptoms: A short-term prospective diary study among adolescents. Cognition & Emotion. 2012;26(5):950–60. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.665027 WOS:000306542100016.

14. Verstraeten K, Vasey MW, Raes F, Bijttebier P. Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2009;37(3):349–61. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9293-x 19107592

15. Wetter EK, Hankin BL. Mediational Pathways Through Which Positive and Negative Emotionality Contribute to Anhedonic Symptoms of Depression: A Prospective Study of Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2009;37(4):507–20. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9299-z WOS:000264879800005. 19184402

16. Lonigan CJ, Phillips BM, Hooe ES. Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. 2003;71(3):465. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.71.3.465 12795571

17. Clark LA, Watson D. Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression—Psychometric Evidence and Taxonomic Implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1991;100(3):316–36. doi: 10.1037//0021-843x.100.3.316 WOS:A1991FY37600011. 1918611

18. Khazanov GK, Ruscio AM. Is low positive emotionality a specific risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. 2016.

19. Fredrickson BL. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. The American psychologist. 2001;56(3):218–26. PMC3122271. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.56.3.218 11315248

20. Van Beveren M-L, McIntosh K, Vandevivere E, Wante L, Vandeweghe L, Van Durme K, et al. Associations Between Temperament, Emotion Regulation, and Depression in Youth: The Role of Positive Temperament. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2016;25(6):1954–68.

21. Vasey MW, Harbaugh CN, Lonigan CJ, Phillips BM, Hankin BL, Willem L, et al. Dimensions of temperament and depressive symptoms: Replicating a three-way interaction. Journal of Research in Personality. 2013;47(6):908–21. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2013.09.001 24493906

22. Joiner TE, Lonigan CJ. Tripartite model of depression and anxiety in youth psychiatric inpatients: Relations with diagnostic status and future symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 2000;29(3):372–82. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP2903_8 10969421

23. Thompson RA. The development of the person: Social understanding, relationships, conscience, self. Handbook of child psychology. 2006.

24. Yap MB, Allen NB, O'Shea M, Di Parsia P, Simmons JG, Sheeber L. Early adolescents' temperament, emotion regulation during mother–child interactions, and depressive symptomatology. Development and psychopathology. 2011;23(1):267–82. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000787 21262053

25. Mezulis A, Simonson J, McCauley E, Vander Stoep A. The association between temperament and depressive symptoms in adolescence: Brooding and reflection as potential mediators. Cognition & emotion. 2011;25(8):1460–70.

26. Hudson MR, Harding KA, Mezulis A. Dampening and brooding jointly link temperament with depressive symptoms: A prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015;83:249–54. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.025 WOS:000356642400044.

27. Harding KA, Hudson MR, Mezulis A. Cognitive mechanisms linking low trait positive affect to depressive symptoms: A prospective diary study. Cognition and emotion. 2014;28(8):1502–11. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2014.889661 24552238

28. Van Beveren ML, Harding K, Beyers W, Braet C. Don't worry, be happy: The role of positive emotionality and adaptive emotion regulation strategies for youth depressive symptoms. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2017.

29. Nolen-Hoeksema S. Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of abnormal psychology. 1991;100(4):569. doi: 10.1037//0021-843x.100.4.569 1757671

30. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus JS. The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological bulletin. 1994;115(3):424. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.424 8016286

31. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition & Emotion. 1999;13(5):551–73. doi: 10.1080/026999399379186 WOS:000082383300006.

32. Gross JJ, Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. 2007.

33. Lane RD, Schwartz GE. Levels of emotional awareness: A cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. The American journal of psychiatry. 1987.

34. Berking M, Whitley B. Affect regulation training. Handbook of emotion regulation. 2014;2.

35. Nigg JT. Annual Research Review: On the relations among self‐regulation, self‐control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk‐taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 2017;58(4):361–83. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12675 28035675

36. Koole SL. The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition and emotion: Psychology press; 2010. p. 138–77.

37. Schäfer JÖ, Naumann E, Holmes EA, Tuschen-Caffier B, Samson AC. Emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of youth and adolescence. 2017;46(2):261–76. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0585-0 27734198

38. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Schweizer S. Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30(2):217–37. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004 WOS:000274319600007. 20015584

39. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010;48(10):974–83. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002 WOS:000282406300005. 20591413

40. Hyde JS, Mezulis AH, Abramson LY. The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review. 2008;115(2):291–313. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.291 WOS:000255118800001. 18426291

41. Mezulis AH, Priess HA, Hyde JS. Rumination mediates the relationship between infant temperament and adolescent depressive symptoms. Depression research and treatment. 2010;2011.

42. Peterson C, Seligman ME. Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological review. 1984;91(3):347. 6473583

43. Fredrickson BL, Branigan C. Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Cognition & emotion. 2005;19(3):313–32.

44. Fredrickson BL, Joiner T. Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological science. 2002;13(2):172–5. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00431 11934003

45. Fredrickson BL. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American psychologist. 2001;56(3):218. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.56.3.218 11315248

46. Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Positive affect and the other side of coping. American psychologist. 2000;55(6):647. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.55.6.647 10892207

47. Garnefski N, Kraaij V. Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences. 2006;40(8):1659–69. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.12.009 WOS:000237901000014.

48. Quoidbach J, Berry EV, Hansenne M, Mikolajczak M. Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and individual differences. 2010;49(5):368–73.

49. Raes F, Daems K, Feldman GC, Johnson SL, Van Gucht D. A psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the responses to positive affect questionnaire. Psychologica Belgica. 2009;49(4):293.

50. Werner-Seidler A, Banks R, Dunn BD, Moulds ML. An investigation of the relationship between positive affect regulation and depression. Behaviour research and therapy. 2013;51(1):46–56. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2012.11.001 23178678

51. Garnefski N, Kraaij V, Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001;30(8):1311–27. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00113-6 WOS:000168777000004.

52. Braet C, Theuwis L, Van Durme K, Vandewalle J, Vandevivere E, Wante L, et al. Emotion Regulation in Children with Emotional Problems. Cognitive Ther Res. 2014;38(5):493–504. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9616-x WOS:000342131800002.

53. Mascha C, Bockting CL, Koeter MW, Schene AH. Prediction of recurrence in recurrent depression: a 5.5-year prospective study. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2010;71(8):984–91. doi: 10.4088/JCP.08m04858blu 20797379

54. Verstraeten K, Bijttebier P, Vasey MW, Raes F. Specificity of worry and rumination in the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2011;50(4):364–78. doi: 10.1348/014466510X532715 22003947

55. Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003;85(2):348–62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 WOS:000184523900012. 12916575

56. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Regulation of positive emotions: Emotion regulation strategies that promote resilience. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2007;8(3):311–33.

57. Brans K, Koval P, Verduyn P, Lim YL, Kuppens P. The regulation of negative and positive affect in daily life. Emotion. 2013;13(5):926. doi: 10.1037/a0032400 23731436

58. Calkins SD, Mackler JS. Temperament, emotion regulation, and social development. Social development: Relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. 2011:44–70.

59. Eisenberg N, Morris AS. Children's emotion-related regulation. 2002.

60. Ahmed SP, Bittencourt-Hewitt A, Sebastian CL. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 2015;15:11–25. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.07.006 WOS:000364537300002. 26340451

61. Sheppes G, Scheibe S, Suri G, Gross JJ. Emotion-Regulation Choice. Psychological Science. 2011;22(11):1391–6. doi: 10.1177/0956797611418350 WOS:000300826400006. 21960251

62. Garland EL, Fredrickson B, Kring AM, Johnson DP, Meyer PS, Penn DL. Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity: Insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits in psychopathology. Clinical psychology review. 2010;30(7):849–64. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.002 20363063

63. Vasey MW, Harbaugh CN, Fisher LB, Heath JH, Hayes AF, Bijttebier P. Temperament synergies in risk for and protection against depressive symptoms: A prospective replication of a three-way interaction. Journal of Research in Personality. 2014;53:134–47.

64. Van Beveren M-L, Mezulis A, Wante L, Braet C. Joint contributions of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and effortful control on depressive symptoms in youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2016:1–12.

65. Thayer JF, Rossy LA, Ruiz-Padial E, Johnsen BH. Gender differences in the relationship between emotional regulation and depressive symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2003;27(3):349–64.

66. Hollingshead AB. Four factor index of social status. 1975.

67. Timbremont B, Braet C, Dreessen L. Assessing depression in youth: relation between the Children's Depression Inventory and a structured interview. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2004;33(1):149–57. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_14 15028549

68. Mabbe E, Soenens B, Vansteenkiste M, van der Kaap-Deeder J, Mouratidis A. Day-to-day variation in autonomy-supportive and psychologically controlling parenting: The role of parents’ daily experiences of need satisfaction and need frustration. Parenting. 2018;18(2):86–109.

69. Vandewalle J, Mabbe E, Debeuf T, Braet C, Moens E. The Daily Relation between Parental Rejection and Emotional Eating in Youngsters: A Diary Study. Frontiers in psychology. 2017;8:691. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00691 28553239

70. Hruska LC, Zelic KJ, Dickson KS, Ciesla JA. Adolescents' co‐rumination and stress predict affective changes in a daily‐diary paradigm. International Journal of Psychology. 2017;52(5):372–80. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12227 26493516

71. Little RJ. A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1988;83(404):1198–202.

72. Bollen KA. Structural equations with latent variables: John Wiley & Sons; 2014.

73. Schafer JL. Analysis of incomplete multivariate data: CRC press; 1997.

74. Laurent J, Catanzaro SJ, Joiner TE Jr, Rudolph KD, Potter KI, Lambert S, et al. A measure of positive and negative affect for children: scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological assessment. 1999;11(3):326.

75. Verstraeten K, Vasey MW, Raes F, Bijttebier P. The mediational role of responses to positive affect in the association between temperament and (hypo) manic symptoms in children. Cognitive therapy and research. 2012;36(6):768–75.

76. Van Beveren M-L, Mueller SC, Braet C. Emotion dysregulation, temperamental vulnerability, and parental depression in adolescents: Correspondence between physiological and informant-report measures. Development and psychopathology. 2019:1–13.

77. Cannon MF, Weems CF. Do anxiety and depression cluster into distinct groups?: A test of tripartite model predictions in a community sample of youth. Depression and Anxiety. 2006;23(8):453–60. doi: 10.1002/da.20215 16845650

78. Grob A, Smolenski C. Fragebogen zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (FEEL-KJ): Verlag Hans Huber; 2005.

79. Braet C, Cracco E, Theuwis L, Grob A, Smolenski C. FEEL-KJ: vragenlijst over emotieregulatie bij kinderen en jongeren: Hogrefe Amsterdam; 2013.

80. Schmitt K, Gold A, Rauch W. [Deficient adaptive regulation of emotion in children with ADHD]. Zeitschrift fur Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie. 2012;40(2):95–102; quiz -3. doi: 10.1024/1422-4917/a000156 22354493

81. Lewis CA, Loewenthal K. An introduction to psychological tests and scales: Psychology Press; 2015.

82. Kovacs M. Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) manual. New York: Multi-Health Systems; 1992.

83. Timbremont B, Braet C. Children's Depression Inventory, Nederlandstalige versie (Children's Depression Inventory, Dutch version). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.; 2002.

84. Martens MP, Parker JC, Smarr KL, Hewett JE, Ge B, Slaughter JR, et al. Development of a shortened Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale for assessment of depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2006;51(2):135.

85. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied psychological measurement. 1977;1(3):385–401.

86. Faulstich ME, Carey MP, Ruggiero L, Enyart P, Gresham F. Assessment of depression in childhood and adolescence: an evaluation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). American Journal of Psychiatry. 1986;143(8):1024–7. doi: 10.1176/ajp.143.8.1024 3728717.

87. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods. 2008;40(3):879–91. doi: 10.3758/Brm.40.3.879 ISI:000257991700027. 18697684

88. Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach: Guilford Press; 2013.

89. Rasbash J, Charlton C, Browne WJ, Healy M, Cameron B. MLwiN Version 2.1. Centre for multilevel modelling, University of Bristol. 2009:1.

90. Nezlek JB. Multilevel modeling for social and personality psychology: SAGE Publications Ltd; 2011.

91. Enders CK, Tofighi D. Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychological methods. 2007;12(2):121. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.12.2.121 17563168

92. Laurent J, Joiner TE Jr, Catanzaro SJ. Positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal among referred and nonreferred youths. Psychological Assessment. 2011;23(4):945. doi: 10.1037/a0024080 21744972

93. Kercher AJ, Rapee RM, Schniering CA. Neuroticism, life events and negative thoughts in the development of depression in adolescent girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2009;37(7):903–15. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9325-1 19437113

94. Bos F, Blaauw F, Snippe E, Van der Krieke L, De Jonge P, Wichers M. Exploring the emotional dynamics of subclinically depressed individuals with and without anhedonia: An experience sampling study. Journal of affective disorders. 2018;228:186–93. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.017 29253685

95. Fredrickson BL, Cohn MA, Coffey KA, Pek J, Finkel SM. Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2008;95(5):1045. doi: 10.1037/a0013262 18954193

96. Peeters F, Berkhof J, Rottenberg J, Nicolson NA. Ambulatory emotional reactivity to negative daily life events predicts remission from major depressive disorder. Behaviour research and therapy. 2010;48(8):754–60. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.008 20537317

97. Rottenberg J, Gross JJ, Gotlib IH. Emotion context insensitivity in major depressive disorder. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2005;114(4):627. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.627 16351385

98. Forbes EE, Dahl RE. Research review: altered reward function in adolescent depression: what, when and how? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2012;53(1):3–15. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02477.x 22117893

99. Eshel N, Roiser JP. Reward and punishment processing in depression. Biological psychiatry. 2010;68(2):118–24. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.027 20303067

100. Henriques JB, Davidson RJ. Decreased responsiveness to reward in depression. Cognition & Emotion. 2000;14(5):711–24.

101. Tan PZ, Forbes EE, Dahl RE, Ryan ND, Siegle GJ, Ladouceur CD, et al. Emotional reactivity and regulation in anxious and nonanxious youth: A cell‐phone ecological momentary assessment study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2012;53(2):197–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02469.x 22176136

102. Balázs J, Miklósi M, Keresztény Á, Hoven CW, Carli V, Wasserman C, et al. Adolescent subthreshold‐depression and anxiety: Psychopathology, functional impairment and increased suicide risk. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry. 2013;54(6):670–7. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12016 23330982

103. Jose PE, Brown I. When does the gender difference in rumination begin? Gender and age differences in the use of rumination by adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2008;37(2):180–92.

104. Steinberg L. Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2005;9(2):69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.005 15668099

105. Hankin BL, Abramson LY, Moffitt TE, Silva PA, McGee R, Angell KE. Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of abnormal psychology. 1998;107(1):128. doi: 10.1037//0021-843x.107.1.128 9505045

106. Wichstrøm L. The emergence of gender difference in depressed mood during adolescence: the role of intensified gender socialization. Developmental psychology. 1999;35(1):232. 9923478

107. Salk RH, Petersen JL, Abramson LY, Hyde JS. The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity. Journal of affective disorders. 2016;205:28–35. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.03.071 27391269

108. Hankin BL, Abramson LY. Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: Reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology. 2002;31(4):491–504. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3104_8 12402568

109. English T, Lee IA, John OP, Gross JJ. Emotion regulation strategy selection in daily life: The role of social context and goals. Motivation and Emotion. 2016:1–13.

110. Luminet O, Zech E, Rimé B, Wagner H. Predicting cognitive and social consequences of emotional episodes: The contribution of emotional intensity, the five factor model, and alexithymia. Journal of Research in Personality. 2000;34(4):471–97.

111. Cheng C. Assessing coping flexibility in real-life and laboratory settings: a multimethod approach. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2001;80(5):814. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.80.5.814 11374752

112. Ahmed S, Bittencourt-Hewitt A, Sebastian C. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci 15, 11–25. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.07.006 26340451

113. Watkins E, Scott J, Wingrove J, Rimes K, Bathurst N, Steiner H, et al. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy for residual depression: A case series. Behaviour research and therapy. 2007;45(9):2144–54. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.018 17367751

114. Hannesdottir DK, Ollendick TH. The role of emotion regulation in the treatment of child anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2007;10(3):275–93. doi: 10.1007/s10567-007-0024-6 17705098

115. Ehrenreich JT, Fairholme CP, Buzzella BA, Ellard KK, Barlow DH. The role of emotion in psychological therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2007;14(4):422–8.

116. Schwarz N. Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American psychologist. 1999;54(2):93.

117. Scollon CN, Prieto C-K, Diener E. Experience sampling: promises and pitfalls, strength and weaknesses. Assessing well-being: Springer; 2009. p. 157–80.

118. Gyurak A, Gross JJ, Etkin A. Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a dual-process framework. Cognition and emotion. 2011;25(3):400–12. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2010.544160 21432682

119. Mauss IB, Bunge SA, Gross JJ. Automatic emotion regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2007;1(1):146–67.

120. Axelson DA, Birmaher B. Relation between anxiety and depressive disorders in childhood and adolescence. Depression and anxiety. 2001;14(2):67–78. 11668659

121. D'Zurilla TJ, Nezu AM, Maydeu-Olivares A. Social problem solving: Theory and assessment. 2004.

122. Webb TL, Miles E, Sheeran P. Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological bulletin. 2012;138(4):775. doi: 10.1037/a0027600 22582737

123. Maxwell SE, Cole DA, Mitchell MA. Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 2011;46(5):816–41. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2011.606716 26736047

124. Bylsma LM, Rottenberg J. Uncovering the dynamics of emotion regulation and dysfunction in daily life with ecological momentary assessment. Emotion regulation and well-being: Springer; 2011. p. 225–44.

125. Gross JJ, Richards JM, John OP. Emotion regulation in everyday life. Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health. 2006;2006:13–35.

126. Gross JJ. Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1998;74(1):224–37. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.74.1.224 WOS:000071543400017. 9457784

127. Areni CS, Burger M, Zlatevska N. Factors affecting the extent of Monday blues: Evidence from a meta-analysis. Psychological reports. 2011;109(3):723–33. doi: 10.2466/13.20.PR0.109.6.723-733 22420107

128. van Roekel E, Ha T, Verhagen M, Kuntsche E, Scholte RH, Engels RC. Social stress in early adolescents' daily lives: Associations with affect and loneliness. Journal of adolescence. 2015;45:274–83. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.10.012 26545263

129. Csikszentmihalyi M. Handbook of research methods for studying daily life: Guilford Press; 2011.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10