Identity and pathogenicity of some fungi associated with hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) trunk cankers in Oregon

Autoři: Nik G. Wiman aff001;  John Bryan Webber, III aff002;  Michele Wiseman aff003;  Lea Merlet aff002
Působiště autorů: Oregon State University, Department of Horticulture, North Willamette Research and Extension Center, Aurora, Oregon, United States of America aff001;  Oregon State University, Department of Horticulture, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America aff002;  Oregon State University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article


Four fungi isolated from trunks and branches of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) from commercial orchards in the Willamette Valley, Oregon were characterized and pathogenicity was tested on potted hazelnut trees. The acreage of hazelnuts in Oregon has expanded greatly in recent years in response to the availability of Eastern filbert blight resistant cultivars. Fungi were characterized using the BLASTn algorithm and the GenBank database with multiple partial gene sequence(s). If BLASTn and GenBank were not sufficient for species-level identification, then a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed. The four pathogens were identified as Diplodia mutilla (Fr.) Mont., Dothiorella omnivora B.T. Linaldeddu, A. Deidda & B. Scanu, Valsa cf. eucalypti Cooke & Harkn., and Diaporthe eres Nitschke. All pathogens but D. omnivora have not been previously reported from European hazelnut in the literature. All four pathogens caused lesions on trunks bare root hazelnut trees cv. ‘Jefferson’ planted in pots in the greenhouse and fungi were re-isolated from inoculated trees. D. mutilla appeared particularly aggressive in repeated inoculation experiments.

Klíčová slova:

Fungal pathogens – Fungi – Pathogenesis – Phylogenetic analysis – Plant fungal pathogens – Trees – Valleys – Orchards


1. Cameron HR. Eastern filbert blight established in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Dis Report. 1976;60: 737–740.

2. Muehlbauer M, Tobia J, Honig J, Hillman B, Zhang N, Gold KM, et al. Population differentiation within Anisogramma anomala in North America. Phytopathology. 2018; doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-06-18-0209-R 30540554

3. Pinkerton JN, Stone JK, Nelson SJ, Johnson KB. Infection of European hazelnut by Anisogramma anomala: ascospore adhesion, mode of penetration of immature shoots, and host response. Phytopathology. 1995;85: 1260–1268.

4. Johnson KB, Mehlenbacher SA, Stone JK, Pscheidt JW, Pinkerton JN. Eastern filbert blight of European hazelnut. It’s becoming a manageable disease. Plant Dis. 1996;80: 1308–1316.

5. Pscheidt JW, Bassinette JP, Heckert S, Cluskey SA. Hazelnut yield protection using fungicides against eastern filbert blight. Plant Health Prog. 2018;19: 254–257. doi: 10.1094/PHP-05-18-0026-RS

6. Coyne CJ, Mehlenbacher SA, Smith DC. Sources of resistance to eastern filbert blight in hazelnut. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1998;123: 253–257.

7. Mehlenbacher SA, Thompson MM, Cameron HR. Occurrence and inheritance of resistance to eastern filbert blight in `Gasaway’ hazelnut. HortScience. 1991;26: 410–411.

8. Sathuvalli V, Mehlenbacher SA, Smith DC. High-resolution genetic and physical mapping of the eastern filbert blight resistance region in ‘Jefferson’ hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). Plant Genome. 2017;10. doi: 10.3835/plantgenome2016.12.0123 28724074

9. Olsen J. Growing hazelnuts in the Pacific Northwest: Introduction. Or State Univ Ext Exp Stn Commun EM 9072. 2013; 3.

10. Mehlenbacher SA, Smith DC, McCluskey RL. ‘Jefferson’ hazelnut. HortScience. 2011;46: 662–664.

11. Elad Y, Pertot I. Climate change impacts on plant pathogens and plant diseases. J Crop Improv. 2014;99–139.

12. Gonthier P, Nicolotti G. Infectious Forest Diseases. CABI; 2013.

13. Pscheidt JW. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana)-Bacterial Blight. In: Peachey E, editor. Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook [online]. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University; 2018.

14. Tennakoon KMS. Botryosphaeria disease in New Zealand blueberry gardens: identification of pathogens, inoculum sources and factors affecting disease development. Thesis, Lincoln University. 2016.

15. Glass N, Donaldson G. Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Env Microb. 1995;61: 1323–30.

16. Posada D. Using MODELTEST and PAUP* to select a model of nucleotide substitution. Wiley; 2003. doi: 10.1002/0471250953.bi0605s00 18428705

17. Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics. 2003;19: 1572–1574. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg180 12912839

18. Linaldeddu BT, Deidda A, Scanu B, Franceschini A, Alves A, Abdollahzadeh J, et al. Phylogeny, morphology and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae and Gnomoniaceae associated with branch diseases of hazelnut in Sardinia (Italy). Eur J Plant Pathol. 2016;146: 259–279. doi: 10.1007/s10658-016-0912-z

19. Mehl JWM, Slippers B, Roux J, Wingfield MJ. Cankers and other diseases caused by the Botryosphaeriaceae. In: Gonthier P, Nicolotti G, editors. Infectious forest diseases. Boston: CABI; 2013. pp. 298–317.

20. Michailides T, Morgan DP. Panicle and Shoot Blight of Pistachio: A Major Threat to the California Pistachio Industry. APSnet Feature Artic. 2004;.

21. Hasey J, Van Steenwyk B, Michailides T. Preventing walnut scale and Botryosphaeria canker and blight. Sacram Val Walnut News. 2015;

22. Alvarez‐Loayza P., White J. F. Jr., Bergen M., Cadenas C. Diplodia mutila causing seedling mortality of the palm Iriartea deltoidea. Plant Pathol. 2008;57: 382–382. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01747.x

23. Mohali S, Encinas O. Association of Diplodia mutila with blue stain of Caribbean pine in Venezuela. For Pathol. 2001;31: 187–189. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0329.2001.00234.x

24. Przybył K. Fungi associated with necrotic apical parts of Fraxinus excelsior shoots. For Pathol. 2002;32: 387–394. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0329.2002.00301.x

25. Ragazzi A., Moricca S., Dellavalle I. Water stress and the development of cankers by Diplodia mutila on Quercus robur. J Phytopathol. 2008;147: 425–428. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.1999.tb03844.x

26. Stanosz GR, Moorman GW. Branch dieback of savin juniper in Pennsylvania caused by Diplodia mutila. Plant Dis. 1997;81: 111–111. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.1.111A 30870926

27. Díaz GA, Latorre BA, Ferrada EE, Gutierrez M, Bravo F, Lolas M. First report of Diplodia mutila causing branch dieback of English walnut cv. Chandler in the Maule Region, Chile. Plant Dis. 2018; doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1860-PDN

28. Chen S, Morgan DP, Hasey JK, Anderson K, Michailides TJ. Phylogeny, morphology, distribution, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae and Diaporthaceae from English walnut in California. Plant Dis. 2013;98: 636–652. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0706-RE 30708543

29. Adesemoye AO, Mayorquin JS, Wang DH, Twizeyimana M, Lynch SC, Eskalen A. Identification of species of Botryosphaeriaceae causing bot gummosis in citrus in California. Plant Dis. 2013;98: 55–61. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0492-RE 30708572

30. Inderbitzin P, Bostock RM, Trouillas FP, Michailides TJ. A six locus phylogeny reveals high species diversity in Botryosphaeriaceae from California almond. Mycologia. 2010;102: 1350–1368. doi: 10.3852/10-006 20943551

31. Úrbez-Torres JR, Gubler WD. Pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species isolated from grapevine cankers in California. Plant Dis. 2009;93: 584–592. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-6-0584 30764399

32. Guerrero JA, Pérez SM. First report of shoot blight and canker caused by Diplodia coryli in hazelnut trees in Chile. Plant Dis. 2012;97: 144–144. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0667-PDN 30722296

33. Phillips AJL, Alves A, Pennycook SR, Johnston PR, Ramaley A, Akulov A, et al. Resolving the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of dark-spored teleomorph genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Persoonia Mol Phylogeny Evol Fungi. 2008;21: 29–55. doi: 10.3767/003158508X340742 20396576

34. Pitt WM, Úrbez-Torres JR, Trouillas FP. Dothiorella vidmadera, a novel species from grapevines in Australia and notes on Spencermartinsia. Fungal Divers. 2013;61: 209–219. doi: 10.1007/s13225-013-0244-7

35. Váczy KZ, Németh MZ, Csikós A, Kovács GM, Kiss L. Dothiorella omnivora isolated from grapevine with trunk disease symptoms in Hungary. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2018;150: 817–824. doi: 10.1007/s10658-017-1323-5

36. Gomes RR, Glienke C, Videira SIR, Lombard L, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW. Diaporthe: a genus of endophytic, saprobic and plant pathogenic fungi. Persoonia Mol Phylogeny Evol Fungi. 2013;31: 1–41. doi: 10.3767/003158513X666844 24761033

37. Guerrero J, Pérez S. First Report of Diaporthe australafricana-caused stem canker and dieback in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in Chile. Plant Dis. 2013;97: 1657–1657. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0286-PDN 30716827

38. Guerrero JC, Pérez SF, Ferrada EQ, Cona LQ, Bensch ET. Phytopathogens of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in southern Chile. Acta Hortic. 2014; 269–273. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1052.36

39. Vrandecic K, Jurkovic D, Cosic J, Postic J, Riccioni L. First report of cane blight on blackberry caused by Diaporthe eres in Croatia. Plant Dis. 2011;95: 612–612. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0860 30731950

40. Thomidis T, Michailides TJ. Studies on Diaporthe eres as a new pathogen of peach trees in Greece. Plant Dis. 2009;93: 1293–1297. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-12-1293 30759511

41. Bai Q, Zhai L, Chen X, Hong N, Xu W, Wang G. Biological and molecular characterization of five phomopsis species associated with pear shoot canker in China. Plant Dis. 2015;99: 1704–1712. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0259-RE 30699520

42. Lombard L, van Leeuwen GCM, Guarnaccia V, Polizzi G, van Rijswick PCJ, Rosendahl KCHM, et al. Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe. Phytopathol Mediterr. 2014;53: 287–299. doi: 10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-14034

43. Baumgartner K, Fujiyoshi PT, Travadon R, Castlebury LA, Wilcox WF, Rolshausen PE. Characterization of species of Diaporthe from wood cankers of grape in eastern North American vineyards. Plant Dis. 2013;97: 912–920. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-12-0357-RE 30722541

44. Lawrence DP, Travadon R, Baumgartner K. Diversity of Diaporthe species associated with wood cankers of fruit and nut crops in northern California. Mycologia. 2015;107: 926–940. doi: 10.3852/14-353 26240309

45. Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex. Fungal Divers. 2014;67: 203–229. doi: 10.1007/s13225-014-0297-2

46. Battilani P, Chiusa G, Arciuolo R, Somenzi M, Fontana M, Castello G, et al. Diaporthe as the main cause of hazelnut defects in the Caucasus region. Phytopathol Mediterr. 2018;57: 320–333. doi: 10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-22872

47. Lamichhane JR, Fabi A, Varvaro L. Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker. Phytopathology. 2013;104: 387–395. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-05-13-0136-R 24168042

48. Tavella L, Gianetti G. Le principali avversità del nocciolo in Piemonte. PETRIA. 2006. pp. 45–48.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden