Plasma midkine concentrations in healthy children, children with increased and decreased adiposity, and children with short stature

Autoři: Youn Hee Jee aff001;  Kun Song Lee aff002;  Shanna Yue aff001;  Ellen W. Leschek aff003;  Matthew G. Boden aff001;  Aysha Jadra aff001;  Anne Klibanski aff004;  Priya Vaidyanathan aff005;  Madhusmita Misra aff004;  Young Pyo Chang aff002;  Jack A. Yanovski aff001;  Jeffrey Baron aff001
Působiště autorů: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America aff001;  Pediatrics, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea aff002;  National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America aff003;  Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America aff004;  Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



Midkine (MDK), one of the heparin-binding growth factors, is highly expressed in multiple organs during embryogenesis. Plasma concentrations have been reported to be elevated in patients with a variety of malignancies, in adults with obesity, and in children with short stature, diabetes, and obesity. However, the concentrations in healthy children and their relationships to age, nutrition, and linear growth have not been well studied.

Subjects and methods

Plasma MDK was measured by immunoassay in 222 healthy, normal-weight children (age 0–18 yrs, 101 boys), 206 healthy adults (age 18–91 yrs, 60 males), 61 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (age 4–18 yrs, 20 boys), 20 girls and young women with anorexia nervosa (age 14–23 yrs), and 75 children with idiopathic short stature (age 3–18 yrs, 42 boys). Body fat was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of subjects. The associations of MDK with age, sex, adiposity, race/ethnicity and stature were evaluated.


In healthy children, plasma MDK concentrations declined with age (r = -0.54, P < 0.001) with values highest in infants. The decline occurred primarily during the first year of life. Plasma MDK did not significantly differ between males and females or between race/ethnic groups. MDK concentrations were not correlated with BMI SDS, fat mass (kg) or percent total body fat, and no difference in MDK was found between children with anorexia nervosa, healthy weight and obesity. For children with idiopathic short stature, MDK concentrations did not differ significantly from normal height subjects, or according to height SDS or IGF-1 SDS.


In healthy children, plasma MDK concentrations declined with age and were not significantly associated with sex, adiposity, or stature-for-age. These findings provide useful reference data for studies of plasma MDK in children with malignancies and other pathological conditions.

Klíčová slova:

Adipose tissue – Anorexia nervosa – Blood plasma – Body Mass Index – Growth hormone – Child health – Childhood obesity – Children


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2019 Číslo 10
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