Soil-borne fungi influence seed germination and mortality, with implications for coexistence of desert winter annual plants


Autoři: Yue M. Li aff001;  Justin P. Shaffer aff003;  Brenna Hall aff004;  Hongseok Ko aff005
Působiště autorů: School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America aff001;  Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America aff002;  School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America aff003;  College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America aff004;  Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224417

Souhrn

Soil-borne fungi influence coexistence of plant species in mesic environments, but much less is known about their effects on demographic processes relevant to coexistence in arid and semi-arid systems. We isolated 43 fungal strains that naturally colonize seeds of an invasive winter annual (Brassica tournefortii) in the Sonoran Desert, and evaluated the impact of 18 of them on seed germination and mortality of B. tournefortii and a co-occurring native annual (Plantago ovata) under simulated summer and winter temperatures. Fungi isolated from B. tournefortii seeds impacted germination and mortality of seeds of both plant species in vitro. Seed responses reflected host-specific effects by fungi, the degree of which differed significantly between the strains, and depended on the temperature. In the winter temperature, ten fungal strains increased or reduced seed germination, but substantial seed mortality due to fungi was not observed. Two strains increased germination of P. ovata more strongly than B. tournefortii. In the summer temperature, fungi induced both substantial seed germination and mortality, with ten strains demonstrating host-specificity. Under natural conditions, host-specific effects of fungi on seed germination may further differentiate plant species niche in germination response, with a potential of promoting coexistence. Both host-specific and non-host-specific effects of fungi on seed loss may induce polarizing effects on plant coexistence depending on the ecological context. The coexistence theory provides a clear framework to interpret these polarizing effects. Moreover, fungi pathogenic to both plant species could induce host-specific germination, which challenges the theoretical assumption of density-independent germination response. These implications from an in vitro study underscore the need to weave theoretical modeling, reductive empirical experiments, and natural observations to illuminate effects of soil-borne fungi on coexistence of annual plant species in variable desert environments.

Klíčová slova:

Deserts – Fungal pathogens – Fungi – Invasive species – Plant fungal pathogens – Plants – Seed germination – Seeds


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