Variation in pickleweed root-associated microbial communities at different locations of a saline solid waste management unit contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

Autoři: Abdur Rahim Khan aff001;  L. G. Reichmann aff001;  J. C. Ibal aff002;  J. H. Shin aff002;  Y. Liu aff001;  H. Collins aff003;  B. LePage aff004;  N. Terry aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America aff001;  School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea aff002;  USDA-ARS Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX, United States of America aff003;  Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Ramon, CA, United States of America aff004;  The Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia, PA, United States of America aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222901


The main purpose of this study was to explore the potential influences of pickleweed vegetation on the abundance, diversity and metabolic activities of microbial communities in four distinct areas of a petroleum-contaminated solid waste management unit (SWMU) located in Contra Costa County, northern California. The four areas sampled include two central areas, one of which is central vegetated (CV) and one unvegetated (UV), and two peripheral vegetated areas, one of which is located to the west side of the SWMU (V-West) and one located to the east side (V-East). Measurements were made of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), soil physicochemical properties, and various aspects of microbial communities including metabolic activities, microbial abundances (PLFAs), diversity and composition based on amplicon sequencing. The peripheral V-East and V-West sites had 10-times lower electrical conductivity (EC) than that of the CV and UV sites. The high salinity levels of the CV and UV sites were associated with significant reductions in bacterial and fungal abundances (PLFA) when compared to V-East but not when compared to V-West. TPH levels of CV and UV were not significantly different from those of V-West but were substantially lower than V-East TPH (19,311 mg/kg of dry soil), the high value of which may have been associated with a pipeline that ran through the area. Microbial activities (in terms of soil respiration and the activities of three soil enzymes, i.e., urease, lipase, and phosphatase) were greatest in the vegetated sites compared to the UV site. The prokaryotic community was not diverse as revealed by the Shannon index with no significant variation among the four groups of samples. However, the fungal community of the peripheral sites, V-East and V-West had significantly higher OTU richness and Shannon index. Structure of prokaryotic communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of pickleweed plants at the three sites differed significantly and were also different from those found in the UV region of the central site according to pairwise, global PERMANOVA and ANOSIM analyses. The differences in OTU-based rhizosphere-associated bacterial and fungal communities’ composition were explained mainly by the changes in soil EC and pH. The results suggest that saline TPH-contaminated areas that are vegetated with pickleweed are likely to have increased abundances, diversity and metabolic activities in the rhizosphere compared to unvegetated areas, even in the presence of high salinity.

Klíčová slova:

Bacteria – Community structure – Fungal structure – Fungi – Hydrocarbons – Rhizosphere – Salinity – Petroleum


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