1. World Health Organization. Depression: Fact sheet 2017. http://www.who/int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/. Cited 4 August 2019.
2. Okereke OI, Lyness JM, Lotrich FE, Reynolds CF 3rd. Depression in late-life: A focus on prevention. Focus. 2013;11: 22–31. doi: 10.1176/appi.focus.11.1.22 24729758
3. Chou KL, Cheung KC. Major depressive disorder in vulnerable groups of older adults, their course and treatment, and psychiatric comorbidity. Depress Anxiety. 2013;30: 528–37. doi: 10.1002/da.22073 23423971
4. Deschenes SS, Burns RJ, Schmitz N. Associations between depression, chronic physical health conditions, and disability in a community sample: A focus on the persistence of depression. J Affect Disord. 2015;179: 6–13. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.020 25841076
5. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Monahan PO, Lowe B. Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146: 317–25. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004 17339617
6. Smith PD, Becker K, Roberts L, Walker J, Szanton SL. Associations among pain, depression, and functional limitation in low-income, home-dwelling older adults: An analysis of baseline data from CAPABLE. Geriatr Nurs. 2016;37: 348–52. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2016.04.016 27245384
7. Xiang X, An R. The impact of cognitive impairment and comorbid depression on disability, health care utilization, and Costs. Psychiatr Serv. 2015;66: 1245–8. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201400511 26073413
8. Strine TW, Kroenke K, Dhingra S, Balluz LS, Gonzalez O, Berry JT, et al. The associations between depression, health-related quality of life, social support, life satisfaction, and disability in community-dwelling US adults. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197: 61–4. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181924ad8 19155812
9. Unutzer J, Schoenbaum M, Katon WJ, Fan MY, Pincus HA, Hogan D, et al. Healthcare costs associated with depression in medically ill fee-for-service medicare participants. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57: 506–10. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02134.x 19175438
10. Katon WJ, Lin E, Russo J, Unutzer J. Increased medical costs of a population-based sample of depressed elderly patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60: 897–903. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.9.897 12963671
11. National Center for Health Statistics. Long-Term Care Providers and Service Users in the United States: Data from the National Study of Long-Term Care. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Deparment of Health and Human Services; 2016. Contract No.: DHHS Publicaton No. 2016–1422. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_03/sr03_038.pdf. Cited 4 August 2019.
12. Teresi J, Abrams R, Holmes D, Ramirez M, Eimicke J. Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2001;36: 613–20. 11838834
13. Watson LC, Lehmann S, Mayer L, Samus Q, Baker A, Brandt J, et al. Depression in assisted living is common and related to physical burden. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14: 876–83. doi: 10.1097/01.JGP.0000218698.80152.79 17001027
14. Brown PJ, Liu X, Sneed JR, Pimontel MA, Devanand DP, Roose SP. Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21: 675–84. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.005 23567401
15. Kida J, Nemoto K, Ikejima C, Bun S, Kakuma T, Mizukami K, et al. Impact of depressive symptoms on conversion from mild cognitive impairment subtypes to Alzheimer's Disease: A community-based longitudinal study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51: 405–15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-150603 26890740
16. Richard E, Reitz C, Honig LH, Schupf N, Tang MX, Manly JJ, et al. Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. JAMA neurology. 2013;70: 374–82. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.603 23599941
17. Motter JN, Devanand DP, Doraiswamy PM, Sneed JR. Computerized cognitive training for Major Depressive Disorder: What's next? Front Psychiatry. 2015;6: 137. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00137 26483706
18. Motter JN, Pimontel MA, Rindskopf D, Devanand DP, Doraiswamy PM, Sneed JR. Computerized cognitive training and functional recovery in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;189: 184–91. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.022 26437233
19. Porter RJ, Bowie CR, Jordan J, Malhi GS. Cognitive remediation as a treatment for major depression: A rationale, review of evidence and recommendations for future research. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013;47: 1165–75. doi: 10.1177/0004867413502090 23956342
20. Kirkby LA, Luongo FJ, Lee MB, Nahum M, Van Vleet TM, Rao VR, et al. An amygdala-hippocampus subnetwork that encodes variation in human mood. Cell. 2018;175: 1688–700.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.005 30415834
21. Sheline YI, Barch DM, Garcia K, Gersing K, Pieper C, Welsh-Bohmer K, et al. Cognitive function in late life depression: relationships to depression severity, cerebrovascular risk factors and processing speed. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60: 58–65. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.09.019 16414031
22. Shimada H, Park H, Makizako H, Doi T, Lee S, Suzuki T. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;57: 149–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.06.004 25023083
23. Lampit A, Hallock H, Valenzuela M. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers. PLoS Med. 2014;11: e1001756. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001756 25405755
24. Diamond K, Mowszowski L, Cockayne N, Norrie L, Paradise M, Hermens DF, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: Effects on memory, mood, and sleep. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;44: 1181–91. doi: 10.3233/JAD-142061 25408218
25. Ng TP, Nyunt MSZ, Feng L, Feng L, Niti M, Tan BY, et al. Multi-domains lifestyle interventions reduces depressive symptoms among frail and pre-frail older persons: Randomized controlled trial. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21: 918–26. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0867-y 28972245
26. Wolinsky FD, Mahncke HW, Weg MW, Martin R, Unverzagt FW, Ball KK, et al. The ACTIVE cognitive training interventions and the onset of and recovery from suspected clinical depression. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009;64: 577–85. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbp061 19617456
27. Wolinsky FD, Vander Weg MW, Howren MB, Jones MP, Dotson MM. The effect of cognitive speed of processing training on the development of additional IADL difficulties and the reduction of depressive symptoms: results from the IHAMS randomized controlled trial. Journal of aging and health. 2015;27: 334–54. doi: 10.1177/0898264314550715 25239928
28. Wolinsky FD, Vander Weg MW, Martin R, Unverzagt FW, Ball KK, Jones RN, et al. The effect of speed-of-processing training on depressive symptoms in ACTIVE. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009;64: 468–72. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gln044 19181719
29. Iowa Department on Aging, State Data Center of Iowa. Older Iowans: 2017. 2017. https://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2019.pdf. Cited 4 August 2019.
30. National Center for Assisted Living. Facts and figures: Residents 2017. https://www.ahcancal.org/ncal/facts/Pages/Residents.aspx. Cited 4 August 2019.
31. Sharp Brains. Brain fitness centers in senior centers and retirment communities. https://sharpbrains.com/resources/5-brain-fitness-through-life/brain-fitness-centers-in-senior-centers-and-retirement-communities/. Cited 4 August 2019.
32. Smith M, Jones MP, Dotson MM, Wolinsky FD. Speed-of-processing training in assisted and independent living: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018.
33. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16: 606–13. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x 11556941
34. Smith M, Jones MP, Dotson MM, Wolinsky FD. Computerized cognitive training to improve mood in senior living settings: Design of a randomized controlled trial. Open Access J Clin Trials. 2018;10: 29–41. doi: 10.2147/OAJCT.S154782 31097911
35. Reisberg B, Ferris SH, de Leon MJ, Crook T. The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 1982;139: 1136–9. doi: 10.1176/ajp.139.9.1136 7114305
36. REDCap: Research Electric Data Capture The University of Iowa, Iowa City: Information Technology Services. https://its.uiowa.edu/redcap. Cited 4 August 2019.
37. Edwards JD, Ross LA, Wadley VG, Clay OJ, Crowe M, Roenker DL, et al. The useful field of view test: normative data for older adults. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2006;21: 275–86. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2006.03.001 16704918
38. Rebok GW, Ball K, Guey LT, Jones RN, Kim HY, King JW, et al. Ten-year effects of the ACTIVE cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62: 16–24. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12607 24417410
39. Ball K, Berch DB, Helmers KF, Jobe JB, Leveck MD, Marsiske M, et al. Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288: 2271–81. doi: 10.1001/jama.288.18.2271 12425704
40. Willis SL, Tennstedt SL, Marsiske M, Ball K, Elias J, Koepke KM, et al. Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. JAMA. 2006;296: 2805–14. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.23.2805 17179457
41. Wolinsky FD, Vander Weg MW, Howren MB, Jones MP, Martin R, Luger TM, et al. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial to improve cognitive functioning in older adults: the Iowa Healthy and Active Minds Study. BMJ open. 2011;1: e000218. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000218 22021885
42. Smith M, Shibley D, Haedtke C. Detection and Assessment of Late Life Depression Evidence-Based Guideline, 3rd Edition. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa College of Nursing Csomay Center for Gerontological Excellence; 2015. https://www.uiowacsomaygeroresources.com/.
43. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth edition, DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
44. Instruction manual. Instructions for Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and GAD-7 measures. https://www.phqscreeners.com/sites/g/files/g10016261/f/201412/instructions.pdf. Cited 4 August 2019.
45. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Lowe B. The Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptom Scales: A systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32: 345–59. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.03.006 20633738
46. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.
47. IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 Armonk, NY IBM Corp.; 2017. https://www.ibm.com/products/spss-statistics.
48. U.S. Census Bureau. Populations 65 years and over in the United States: Iowa 2017. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml. Cited 4 August 2019.
49. Steinerman JR. Minding the aging brain: technology-enabled cognitive training for healthy elders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010;10: 374–80. doi: 10.1007/s11910-010-0124-4 20544402