A cross sectional comparison of drug use indicators using WHO methodology in primary level hospitals participating in an Auditable Pharmaceutical Transactions and Services program versus non-APTS primary hospitals in Southern Ethiopia

Autoři: Biruk Wogayehu aff001;  Yilma Chisha aff002;  Be’emnetu Tekabe aff002;  Ayalew Adinew aff003;  Mulugeta Asefaw aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Pharmacy, Arbaminch College of Health Sciences, Arbaminch, Ethiopia aff001;  Department of Public Health, Arbaminch University, Arbaminch, Ethiopia aff002;  Pharmacy Service, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia aff003;  Pharmacy Service, Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223523



Ethiopian pharmaceutical sector has been facing inaccessibility and unaffordability to key essential medicines due to medicines diversion from the public to private health care facilities, lack of transparency, poor inventory management, and poor dispensing workflow. In an effort to improve the pharmaceutical sector, the government of Ethiopia in 2011 introduced Auditable Pharmaceutical Transactions and Services program. This study intended to compare drug use indicators in auditable and non-auditable primary level hospitals.


A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted between January 2018 and December 2018 at primary level hospitals in southern Ethiopia: one with Auditable Pharmaceutical Transactions and Services (APTS) program; another without APTS (Non-APTS).WHO drug use indicators in auditable primary hospitals (n = 10) and similar non-auditable primary hospitals (n = 10) were compared. The prescribing indicators and average cost of medicines were evaluated retrospectively using 1000 prescriptions from each group. Patient care indicators were evaluated prospectively by interviewing and observing 1000 patients from each group. Patient satisfaction was assessed by interviewing 1000 patients from each group. Health care facilities were evaluated through observation. We performed descriptive analysis, t-test, logistic regression, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression using SPSS version 20.0.


The mean consultation time in auditable and non-auditable hospitals was found to be 6.5 minutes and 3.46 minutes, respectively. The average dispensing time in auditable and non-auditable hospitals was found to be 6.6 minutes and 1.02 minutes, respectively.The proportion of drugs actually dispensed was 97.59% in APTS facilities and 76.44% in the non-auditable facilities with the lowest value seen in a non-auditable facility (51.65%). The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.32 (±1.26) and 2.84 (±1.17) in auditable and non-auditable facilities, respectively. The level of patient satisfaction on the convenience of pharmacy location, information on contraindications, availability of drugs and amount of time for counseling was significantly higher in the auditable facilities than the non-auditable facilities (p<0.001).


This study revealed that patient care indicator values, the level of patient satisfaction on the pharmacy services and health facility indicator values were significantly better in APTS than Non-APTS primary level hospitals. Most of prescribing indicators and labeling practices were not met WHO stated standard in both auditable and non-auditable facilities.This indicates that the auditable programshould include additional strategies to reverse the existing irrational prescribing and inadequate labeling practices.

Klíčová slova:

Adverse reactions – Antibiotics – Drug screening – Drugs – Health care facilities – Outpatients – Routes of administration – Drug information


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