A multidimensional understanding of prosperity and well-being at country level: Data-driven explorations

Autoři: Mohsen Joshanloo aff001;  Veljko Jovanović aff002;  Tim Taylor aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Psychology, Keimyung University, Daegu, South Korea aff001;  Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia aff002;  Interdisciplinary Ethics Applied Centre, University of Leeds, Holmfirth, England, United Kingdom aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223221


Social scientists have been interested in measuring the prosperity, well-being, and quality of life of nations, which has resulted in a multiplicity of country-level indicators. However, little is known about the factor structure of these indicators. We explored the structure of quality of life, using country-level data on tens of subjective and objective indicators. Applying factor analysis, we identified three distinct factors that exhibited both overlap and complementarity. This structure was replicated in data from previous years and with a partially different set of variables. The first factor, ‘socio-economic progress’, is dominated by socio-political and economic indicators but also includes life satisfaction, which thus appears to reflect objective living conditions. The second factor, ‘psycho-social functioning’, consists of subjective indicators, such as eudaimonic well-being and positive affective states. The third, ‘negative affectivity’, comprises negatively-valenced affective states. The three macro-factors of societal quality of life demonstrated moderate intercorrelations and differential associations with cultural and ecological variables, providing support for their discriminant validity. Finally, country and regional rankings based on the three societal factors revealed a complex picture that cautions against over-reliance on any single indicator such as life satisfaction. The results underline the need for a broadly-based approach to the measurement of societal quality of life, and provide an empirically-derived multidimensional framework for conceptualizing and measuring quality of life and well-being at country level. This study is thus an initial empirical step towards systematizing the multiple approaches to societal quality of life.

Klíčová slova:

Behavioral and social aspects of health – Factor analysis – Global health – Happiness – Health education and awareness – Mental health and psychiatry – Quality of life – Suicide


1. Taylor TE. The markers of wellbeing: a basis for a theory-neutral approach. Int J Well Being. 2015;5: 75–90. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v5i2.5

2. Dodge R, Daly A, Huyton J, Sanders L. The challenge of defining wellbeing. Int J Well Being. 2012;2: 222–235. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v2i3.4

3. McGillivray M. Human well-being: issues, concepts and measures. In: McGillivray M, editor. Human well-being. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2007. pp. 1–22.

4. Barrington-Leigh C, Escande A. Measuring progress and well-being: a comparative review of indicators. Soc Indic Res. 2018;135: 893–925. doi: 10.1007/s11205-016-1505-0

5. Jayawickreme E, Forgeard MJC, Seligman MEP. The engine of well-being. Rev Gen Psychol. 2012;16: 327–342. doi: 10.1037/a0027990

6. Bleys B. Beyond GDP: Classifying alternative measures for progress. Soc Indic Res. 2012;109: 355–376. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9906-6

7. Costanza R, Hart M, Posner S, Talberth J. Beyond GDP: The need for new measures of progress. The Pardee Papers, No. 4; 2009.

8. Land KC, Michalos AC. Fifty years after the social indicators movement: has the promise been fulfilled?: an assessment an agenda for the future. Soc Indic Res. 2018;135: 835–868. doi: 10.1007/s11205-017-1571-y

9. Stiglitz J, Sen A, Fitoussi JP. Report by the Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress; 2009. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/118025/118123/Fitoussi+Commission+report

10. Bache I, Scott K. Wellbeing in politics and policy. In: Bache I, Scott K, editors. The politics of wellbeing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018. pp. 1–22.

11. Gasper D. Subjective and objective well-being in relation to economic inputs: puzzles and responses. Rev Soc Econ. 2005;63: 177–206. doi: 10.1080/00346760500130309

12. McGregor JA, Coulthard S, Camfield L. Measuring what matters: The role of well-being methods in development policy and practice. ODI Development Progress Project Note, 4; 2015.

13. Diener E, Suh E. Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Soc Indic Res. 1997;40: 189–216. doi: 10.1023/A:1006859511756

14. Western M, Tomaszewski W. Subjective wellbeing, objective wellbeing and inequality in Australia. PLoS ONE. 2016;11: e0163345. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163345 27695042

15. Henderson L, Knight T. Integrating the hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives to more comprehensively understand wellbeing and pathways to wellbeing. Int J Well Being. 2012;2: 196–221. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v2i3.3

16. Joshanloo M. Revisiting the empirical distinction between hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being using exploratory structural equation modeling. J Happiness Stud. 2016;17: 2023–2036. doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9683-z

17. Ryan RM, Deci EL. On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52: 141–166. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141 11148302

18. Diener E. Subjective well-being. Psychol Bull. 1984;95: 542–575. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542 6399758

19. Dolan P, Peasgood T. Measuring well-being for public policy: preferences or experiences? J Legal Stud. 2008;37: S5–S31. doi: 10.1086/595676

20. Sumner LW. Welfare, happiness, and ethics. Oxford University Press; 1999.

21. Brickman P, Coates D, Janoff-Bulman R. Lottery winners and accident victims: is happiness relative? J Pers Soc Psychol. 1978;36: 917–927. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.36.8.917 690806

22. Luttmer EFP. Neighbors as negatives: relative earnings and well-being. Q J Econ. 2005;120: 963–1002.

23. Haybron D. Life satisfaction, ethical reflection, and the science of happiness. J Happiness Stud. 2007;8: 99–138. doi: 10.1007/s10902-006-9006-5

24. Diener E, Lucas R, Schimmack U, Helliwell J. Well-being for public policy. Oxford University Press; 2009.

25. Taylor T. Adaptation and the measurement of well-being. Ethics Soc Welfare. 2014;8: 248–261. doi: 10.1080/17496535.2014.932417

26. Cummins RA, Eckersley R, Pallant J, van Vugt J, Misajon R. Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: the Australian Unity Wellbeing Index. Soc Indic Res. 2003;64: 159–190. doi: 10.1023/A:1024704320683

27. Kashdan TB, Biswas-Diener R, King LA. Reconsidering happiness: the costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. J Posit Psychol. 2008;3: 219–233. doi: 10.1080/17439760802303044

28. Phillips D. Quality of life: concept, policy and practice. London; New York: Routledge; 2006.

29. Diener E, Inglehart R, Tay L. Theory and validity of life satisfaction scales. Soc Indic Res. 2013;112: 497–527. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0076-y

30. Delle Fave A. Subjective indicators of well-being: conceptual background and applications in social sciences. In: Bruni L, Porta PL, editors. Handbook of research methods and applications in happiness and quality of life. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2016. pp. 71–89.

31. Huppert FA, So TTC. Flourishing across Europe: application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Soc Indic Res. 2013;110: 837–861. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9966-7 23329863

32. Heintzelman SJ. Eudaimonia in the contemporary science of subjective well-being: psychological well-being, self-determination, and meaning in life. In: Diener E, Oishi S, Tay L, editors. Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers; 2018.

33. Joshanloo M. Optimal human functioning around the world: a new index of eudaimonic well-being in 166 nations. Br J Psychol. 2018;109: 637–655. doi: 10.1111/bjop.12316 29846018

34. Lent RW. Toward a unifying theoretical and practical perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment. J Couns Psychol. 2004;51: 482–509. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.51.4.482

35. Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57: 1069–1081.

36. Huta V, Waterman AS. Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. J Happiness Stud. 2014;15: 1425–1456. doi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9485-0

37. Diener E, Seligman MEP. Beyond money: progress on an economy of well-being. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2018;13: 171–175. doi: 10.1177/1745691616689467 29592646

38. Keyes CLM, Annas J. Feeling good and functioning well: distinctive concepts in ancient philosophy and contemporary science. J Posit Psychol. 2009;4: 197–201. doi: 10.1080/17439760902844228

39. Joshanloo M. Structural and discriminant validity of the tripartite model of mental well-being: differential relationships with the big five traits. J Ment Health. 2019;28: 168–174. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1370633 28868947

40. Diener E, Tay L. Subjective well-being and human welfare around the world as reflected in the Gallup World Poll. Int J Psychol. 2015;50: 135–149. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12136 25612012

41. Estes RJ, Sirgy MJ. Global advances in quality of life and well-being: past, present, and future. Soc Indic Res. 2019;141: 1137–1164. doi: 10.1007/s11205-018-1869-4

42. Dervis K, Klugman J. Measuring human progress: the contribution of the Human Development Index and related indices. Rev Econ Polit. 2011;121: 73–92. doi: 10.3917/redp.211.0073

43. Diener E. A value based index for measuring national quality of life. Soc Indic Res. 1995;36: 107–127. doi: 10.1007/BF01079721

44. Schwartz SH. Beyond individualism/collectivism: new cultural dimensions of values. In: Kim U, Triandis HC, Kâğitçibaşi Ç, Choi S-C, Yoon G, editors. Cross-cultural research and methodology series, Vol. 18. Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc; 1994. pp. 85–119.

45. Legatum Institute. Legatum Prosperity Index 2017: methodology report; 2017a. http://prosperitysite.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com/9615/1186/6075/Legatum_Prosperity_Index_2017_Methodology_Report.pdf

46. Legatum Institute. The 2017 Legatum Prosperity Index; 2017b. https://prosperitysite.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com/3515/1187/1128/Legatum_Prosperity_Index_2017.pdf

47. Otoiu A, Titan E, Dumitrescu R. Are the variables used in building composite indicators of well-being relevant? Validating composite indexes of well-being. Ecol Indic. 2014;46: 575–585. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.07.019

48. Durand M. The OECD Better Life Initiative: How’s Life? and the measurement of well-being. Rev Income and Wealth. 2015;61: 4–17. doi: 10.1111/roiw.12156

49. Porter ME, Stern S, Green M. Social Progress Index 2015. Washington, DC: Social Progress Imperative; 2015.

50. Delhey J, Kroll C. A “happiness test” for the new measures of national well-being: how much better than GDP are they? In: Brockmann H, Delhey J, editors. Human happiness and the pursuit of maximization. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. pp. 191–210.

51. Grinde B. Why negative feelings are important when assessing well-being. J Happiness Stud. 2016;17: 1741–1752. doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9667-z

52. Hagerty MR, Cummins RA, Ferriss AL, Land K, Michalos AC, Peterson M, et al. Quality of life indexes for national policy: review and agenda for research. Soc Indic Res. 2001;55: 1–96. doi: 10.1023/A:1010811312332

53. Maggino F. Indicators of happiness vs. quality of happiness: methodology and theory. In: Bruni L, Porta PL, editors. Handbook of research methods and applications in happiness and quality of life. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2016. pp. 196–228.

54. Nayyar D. Development through globalization? In: Mavrotas G, Shorrocks A, editors. Advancing development. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2007. pp. 593–613. doi: 10.1057/9780230801462_31

55. Helliwell JF, Huang H, Wang S, Shiplett H. International migration and world happiness. In: Helliwell JF, Layard R, Sachs JD, editors. World happiness report 2018. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network; 2018. pp. 13–43.

56. Diener E, Ng W, Harter J, Arora R. Wealth and happiness across the world: material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2010;99: 52–61. doi: 10.1037/a0018066 20565185

57. Tay L, Herian MN, Diener E. Detrimental effects of corruption and subjective well-being: whether, how, and when. Soc Psychol Personal Sci. 2014;5: 751–759. doi: 10.1177/1948550614528544

58. Jorm AF, Ryan SM. Cross-national and historical differences in subjective well-being. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43: 330–340. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt188 24585736

59. Steel P, Taras V, Uggerslev K, Bosco F. The happy culture: a theoretical, meta-analytic, and empirical review of the relationship between culture and wealth and subjective well-being. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2018;22: 128–169. doi: 10.1177/1088868317721372 28770649

60. Diener E, Tay L, Myers DG. The religion paradox: if religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101: 1278–1290. doi: 10.1037/a0024402 21806304

61. Fischer R, Van de Vliert E. Does climate undermine subjective well-being? a 58-nation study. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2011;37: 1031–1041. doi: 10.1177/0146167211407075 21555504

62. Arrindell WA, Hatzichristou C, Wensink J, Rosenberg E, van Twillert B, Stedema J, et al. Dimensions of national culture as predictors of cross-national differences in subjective well-being. Pers Individ Dif. 1997;23: 37–53. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00023-8

63. Welzel C, Inglehart R. Agency, values, and well-being: a human development model. Soc Indic Res. 2010;97: 43–63. doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9557-z 20390031

64. Joshanloo M. Cultural religiosity as the moderator of the relationship between affective experience and life satisfaction: a study in 147 countries. Emotion. 2019;19: 629–636. doi: 10.1037/emo0000469 29999383

65. Kim D. Cross-national pattern of happiness: do higher education and less urbanization degrade happiness? Appl Res Qual Life. 2018;13: 21–35. doi: 10.1007/s11482-017-9504-0

66. Bjørnskov C. Healthy and happy in Europe? On the association between happiness and life expectancy over time. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66: 1750–1759. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.031 18313190

67. Rehdanz K, Maddison D. Climate and happiness. Ecol Econ. 2005;52: 111–125. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015

68. Diener E, Oishi S, Ryan KL. Universals and cultural differences in the causes and structure of happiness: a multilevel review. In: Keyes CLM, editor. Mental well-being. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. pp. 153–176.

69. Veenhoven R. Subjective well-being in nations. In: Diener E, Oishi S, Tay L, editors. Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers; 2018.

70. Gygli S, Haelg F, Potrafke N, Sturm J-E. The KOF Globalisation Index–revisited. Rev Int Organ. 2019;14: 543–574. doi: 10.1007/s11558-019-09344-2

71. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. GBD compare data visualization. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington; 2015. https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/

72. Strong K, Mathers C, Leeder S, Beaglehole R. Preventing chronic diseases: how many lives can we save? Lancet. 2005;366: 1578–1582. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67341-2 16257345

73. Parks R. The rise, critique and persistence of the DALY in global health. J Glob Health. 2014. http://www.ghjournal.org/the-rise-critique-and-persistence-of-the-daly-in-global-health/

74. Hofstede GH. National culture. 2018. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture

75. Hofstede GH, Hofstede GJ, Minkov M. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010.

76. Inglehart R, Haerpfer C, Moreno A, Welzel C, Kizilova K, Diez-Medrano J, et al. World values survey: round six—country-pooled datafile 2010–2014. Madrid: JD Systems Institute. 2014. http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV.

77. Joshanloo M, Gebauer JG. Religiosity’s nomological network and temporal change: introducing an extensive country-level religiosity index based on Gallup World Poll data. Eur Psychol. Forthcoming 2019.

78. Van de Vliert E. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms. Behav Brain Sci. 2013;36: 465–480. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X12002828 23985270

79. Helliwell JF, Layard R, Sachs JD. World happiness report 2015. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network; 2015.

80. Tay L, Kuykendall L, Diener E. Satisfaction and happiness–the bright side of quality of life. In: Glatzer W, Camfield L, Møller V, Rojas M, editors. Global handbook of quality of life. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. pp. 839–853.

81. Diener E. New findings and future directions for subjective well-being research. Am Psychol. 2012;67: 590–597. doi: 10.1037/a0029541 23163434

82. White SC. Introduction: the many faces of wellbeing. In: White SC, Blackmore C, editors. Cultures of wellbeing. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. pp. 1–44.

83. Minkov M, Schachner M, Sanchez C, Morales O. A new worldwide measure of happiness explains national differences in suicide rates and cigarette consumption. Cross Cult Res. 2019;53: 355–384. doi: 10.1177/1069397118799688

84. Diener E, Kahneman D, Tov W, Arora R. Income’s association with judgments of life versus feelings. In: Diener E, Helliwell JF, Kahneman D, editors. International differences in well-being. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010. pp. 3–15.

85. Inglehart R, Foa R, Peterson C, Welzel C. Development, freedom, and rising happiness: a global perspective (1981–2007). Perspect Psychol Sci. 2008;3: 264–285. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00078.x 26158947

86. Kahneman D, Deaton A. High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107: 16489–16493. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1011492107 20823223

87. Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade D, Schwarz N, Stone AA. Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science. 2006;312: 1908–1910. doi: 10.1126/science.1129688 16809528

88. Bjørnskov C. How comparable are the Gallup World Poll life satisfaction data? J Happiness Stud. 2010;11: 41–60. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9121-6

89. Gallagher MW, Lopez SJ, Pressman SD. Optimism is universal: exploring the presence and benefits of optimism in a representative sample of the world. J Pers. 2013;81: 429–440. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12026 23253230

90. Pavot W, Diener E, Suh E. The temporal satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess. 1998;70: 340–354. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa7002_11

91. Proyer RT, Gander F, Wyss T, Ruch W. The relation of character strengths to past, present, and future life satisfaction among German-speaking women. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2011;3: 370–384. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01060.x

92. Oishi S, Diener E. Residents of poor nations have a greater sense of meaning in life than residents of wealthy nations. Psychol Sci. 2014;25: 422–430. doi: 10.1177/0956797613507286 24335603

93. Joshanloo M. Investigating the relationships between subjective well-being and psychological well-being over two decades. Emotion. 2019;19: 183–187. doi: 10.1037/emo0000414 29494203

94. Kuppens P, Ceulemans E, Timmerman ME, Diener E, Kim-Prieto C. Universal intracultural and intercultural dimensions of the recalled frequency of emotional experience. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2006;37: 491–515. doi: 10.1177/0022022106290474

95. Inglehart R, Welzel C. Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: the human development sequence. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press; 2005.

96. Griswold MG, Fullman N, Hawley C, Arian N, Zimsen SRM, Tymeson HD, et al. Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2018;392: 1015–1035. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31310-2 30146330

97. Joshanloo M, Jovanović V. Subjective health in relation to hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing: evidence from the Gallup World Poll. J Health Psychol. 2018. doi: 10.1177/1359105318820104 30582374

98. Morgen CS, Sørensen TIA. Global trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10: 513–514. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.124 25048038

99. Rojas M. Happiness, research, and Latin America. In: Rojas M, editor. Handbook of happiness research in Latin America. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. pp. 1–13.

100. Daly MC, Oswald AJ, Wilson D, Wu S. Dark contrasts: the paradox of high rates of suicide in happy places. J Econ Behav Organ. 2011;80: 435–442. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2011.04.007

101. Diener E. Subjective well-being in cross-cultural perspective. In: Grad H, Blanco A, Georgas J, editors. Key issues in cross-cultural psychology. Liese, the Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger; 1996. pp. 319–330.

102. Scott S, Wares A, Epner T. Social Progress Index methodology report; 2018. https://www.socialprogress.org/assets/downloads/resources/2018/2018-Social-Progress-Index-Methodology.pdf

103. Ng W, Diener E. Affluence and subjective well-being: does income inequality moderate their associations? Appl Res Qual Life. 2019;14: 155–170. doi: 10.1007/s11482-017-9585-9

104. Reyes-García V, Angelsen A, Shively GE, Minkin D. Does income inequality influence subjective wellbeing? Evidence from 21 developing countries. J Happiness Stud. 2019;20: 1197–1215. doi: 10.1007/s10902-018-9992-0

105. Kelley J, Evans MDR. Societal inequality and individual subjective well-being: results from 68 societies and over 200,000 individuals, 1981–2008. Soc Sci Res. 2017;62: 1–23. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.04.020 28126092

106. Ngamaba KH, Panagioti M, Armitage CJ. Income inequality and subjective well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Qual Life Res. 2018;27: 577–596. doi: 10.1007/s11136-017-1719-x 29067589

107. Stiglitz JE. 8. Inequality and economic growth. Polit Q. 2015;86: 134–155. doi: 10.1111/1467-923X.12237

108. Hills T, Proto E, Sgroi D. Historical analysis of national subjective wellbeing using millions of digitized books. CESifo Working Paper; 2015.

109. Bond TN, Lang K. The sad truth about happiness scales. J Polit Econ. 2019;127: 1629–1640. doi: 10.1086/701679

110. Cummins RA. Measuring and interpreting subjective wellbeing in different cultural contexts: a review and way forward. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press; 2018.

111. Bieda A, Hirschfeld G, Schönfeld P, Brailovskaia J, Zhang XC, Margraf J. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health. Psychol Assess. 2017;29: 408–421. doi: 10.1037/pas0000353 27322203

112. Van de Vijver F, Leung K. Methods and data analysis of comparative research. In: Berry JW, Poortinga YH, Pandey J, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural psychology. 2nd ed. Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn & Bacon; 1997. pp. 257–300.

113. Tov W, Au EWM. Comparing well-being across nations: conceptual and empirical issues. In: Boniwell I, David S, Conley A, editors. Oxford handbook of happiness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2013. pp. 448–464.

114. An S, Ji L-J, Marks M, Zhang Z. Two sides of emotion: exploring positivity and negativity in six basic emotions across cultures. Front Psychol. 2017;8: 610. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00610 28473791

115. Joshanloo M, Lepshokova ZKh, Panyusheva T, Natalia A, Poon W-C, Yeung VW, et al. Cross-cultural validation of fear of happiness scale across 14 national groups. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2014;45: 246–264. doi: 10.1177/0022022113505357

116. Oishi S, Graham J, Kesebir S, Galinha IC. Concepts of happiness across time and cultures. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013;39: 559–577. doi: 10.1177/0146167213480042 23599280

117. Guerini M, Nuvolati G. Happiness, subjective and objective indicators. In: Bruni L, Porta PL, editors. Handbook of research methods and applications in happiness and quality of life. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2016. pp. 400–418.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10