The association between flavor capsule cigarette use and sociodemographic variables: Evidence from Chile


Autoři: Guillermo Paraje aff001;  Daniel Araya aff001;  Jeffrey Drope aff002
Působiště autorů: Escuela de Negocios, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago de Chile, Chile aff001;  Economic & Health Policy Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff002;  Department of Political Science, Marquette University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224217

Souhrn

Purpose

The objective of this article is to examine the factors associated with smoking of flavor capsule cigarettes in Chile, where the popularity of these products has increased dramatically, a trend increasingly observed across the world.

Methods

A representative poll of 851 smokers in Metropolitan Santiago de Chile, which comprises 40% of the country's total population, was implemented in mid-2017. Smokers were given a questionnaire that collected socio-demographic information and information on smoking patterns. Four discrete-choice models were estimated on the decision to smoke flavor capsule cigarettes to better understand the statistical relationships between traits of smokers and the consumption of flavor capsule cigarettes.

Results

The results of these models show that each year less in a smoker’s age increases the likelihood of preferring flavor capsule cigarettes by, on average, between 0.8 and 0.9 percentage points. If the smoker is a woman, the likelihood of preferring flavor capsule cigarettes increases between 13.4 and 13.5 percentage points. Results also reveal a positive relationship between the price paid and the consumption of flavor capsule cigarettes, indicating that these cigarettes tend to be more expensive. There is no statistical relationship between participation in the labor market and smoking these products.

Conclusions

Chile has the world’s highest prevalence of flavor capsule cigarette smoking, which is concentrated among young people (25 years and younger) and females. No relationship between socioeconomic status and use of these products is found, though there are indications that such relationship may exist, as they were at the time of study 14% more expensive, on average, than conventional non-flavored cigarettes. As in most countries, the tobacco industry appears to be deliberately promoting these products with the goal of halting or slowing the decline in cigarette consumption in Chile. Thus, to reduce cigarette consumption (especially among youth), restricting or forbidding cigarette flavorings of all types, including flavor capsules, would be an effective strategy.

Klíčová slova:

Age groups – Chile (country) – Mexico – Peru – Smell – Smoking habits – Tobacco – Tobacco control


Zdroje

1. World Health Organization. Case studies for regulatory approaches to tobacco products: menthol in tobacco products. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Report No.: WHO/NMH/PND/18.1.

2. Anderson SJ. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2011;20 Suppl 2,:ii20–8.

3. Huang L-L, Baker HM, Meernik C, Ranney LM, Richardson A, Goldstein AO. Impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use among youth, young adults and adults: a systematic review. Tobacco Control. 2017;26(6):709. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053196 27872344

4. Kabbani N. Not so Cool? Menthol’s discovered actions on the nicotinic receptor and its implications for nicotine addiction. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2013;4:95. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00095 23898298

5. Wertz MS, Kyriss T, Paranjape S, Glantz SA. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation. PLoS medicine. 2011;8(12):e1001145. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001145 22205885

6. European Parliament. Directive 2014/40/EU. In: European Parliament, editor. Strasbourg,2014.

7. Euromonitor International. Passport data 2019 [Available from: https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/magazine/homemain. Access date: 6th March 2019.

8. Thrasher JF, Islam F, Barnoya J, Mejia R, Valenzuela MT, Chaloupka FJ. Market share for flavour capsule cigarettes is quickly growing, especially in Latin America. Tobacco Control. 2017;26(4):468. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053030 27329114

9. Moodie C, Thrasher JF, Cho YJ, Barnoya J, Chaloupka FJ. Flavour capsule cigarettes continue to experience strong global growth. Tobacco Control. 2018:tobaccocontrol-2018-054711.

10. Scollo M, Bayly M, White S, Lindorff K, Wakefield M. Tobacco product developments in the Australian market in the 4 years following plain packaging. Tobacco Control. 2018;27(5):580. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053912 28993520

11. Thrasher JF, Abad-Vivero EN, Moodie C, Connor RJ, Hammond D, Cummings KM, et al. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014. Tobacco Control. 2016;25(3):275. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052064 25918129

12. Thrasher JF, Abad-Vivero EN, Moodie C, O'Connor RJ, Hammond D, Cummings KM, et al. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014. Tob Control. 2016;25(3):275–83. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052064 25918129

13. Moodie C, MacKintosh AM, Thrasher JF, McNeill A, Hitchman S. Use of Cigarettes With Flavor-Changing Capsules Among Smokers in the United Kingdom: An Online Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2018.

14. Klausner K. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective. Tob Control. 2011;20 Suppl 2,:ii12–9.

15. Anderson SJ. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2011;20 Suppl 2,:ii49–56.

16. Feigl A, Salomon J, Danaei G, Ding E, Calvo E. Teenage smoking behaviour following a high-school smoking ban in Chile: interrupted time-series analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2015;93(7):468–75. doi: 10.2471/BLT.14.146092 26170504

17. Guindon GE, Paraje GR, Chaloupka FJ. Association of Tobacco Control Policies With Youth Smoking Onset in Chile. JAMA Pediatrics. 2019:E1–E9.

18. Consejo Nacional para el Control de Estupefacientes. Séptimo Estudio Nacional de Drogas en Población General de Chile. Santiago de Chile, Chile,2007.

19. Observatorio Chileno de Drogas. Décimo Segundo Estudio Nacional de Drogas en Población General. Santiago de Chile, Chile,2017.

20. Observatorio Chileno de Drogas. Décimo Segundo Estudio Nacional de Drogas en Población Escolar. Santiago de Chile, Chile,2018.

21. Secretaría de Planificación de Transporte. Encuesta de Origen y Destino 2012. Chile: Ministerio de Teletransportes y Telecomunicaciones; 2015.

22. Observatorio Chileno de Drogas. Décimo Primer Estudio Nacional de Drogas en Población General. Santiago de Chile, Chile,2015.

23. Maldonado N, Llorente BA, Iglesias RM, Escobar D. Measuring illicit cigarette trade in Colombia. Tobacco Control. 2018.

24. Paraje G, Araya D, Drope J. Illicit Cigarette Trade in the Metropolitan Santiago de Chile. Tobacco Control. 2018.

25. International Euromonitor. Cigarettes in Chile. Euromonitor International; 2017.

26. World Health Organization. Partial guidelines for implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; Regulation of the contents of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosures. Adopted 2010, amended 2012.

27. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Brazil—Flavoured cigarettes banned 2012 [Available from: https://www.who.int/fctc/implementation/news/news_brazil/en/.

28. Lencucha R, Drope J, Labonte R. Rhetoric and the law, or the law of rhetoric: How countries oppose novel tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization. Soc Sci Med. 2016;164:100–7. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.026 27475056

29. Cancian N, Casado L. Brazil Supreme Court Upholds Anvisa Norm That Prohibits Flavored Cigarettes. Folha de Sao Paulo. 2nd February 2018.

30. Minister of Justice of Canada. Tobacco and Vaping Products Act. In: Minister of Justice of Canada, editor. Ottawa,2018.

31. Tobacco Control Legal Consortium. How Other Countries Regulate Flavored Tobacco Products [Available from: http://publichealthlawcenter.org/sites/default/files/resources/tclc-fs-global-flavored-regs-2015.pdf.

32. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Senegal [Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/senegal/summary.

33. Gray A, Edgecliffe-Johnson A. Big Tobacco prepares to fight proposed ban on menthol cigarettes. Financial Times. 17th November 2018.

34. Roman J. La nueva batalla sobre el tabaco se traslada a la Unicef. Pauta. 26th June 2018.

35. Said J. Cultivo de tabaco, la nueva piedra de tope. El Líbero. 2019 16th May 2019.

36. Mostrador El. Girardi responsabiliza al Gobierno por lobby de tabacaleras que tiene estancada nueva Ley del Tabaco. El Mostrador. 19th June 2017.

37. Cámara de Diputados de Chile. Sesión 49º. In: Chile CdDd, editor. Valparaíso: Cámara de Diputados de Chile; 2015.

38. Observatorio Chileno de Drogas. Décimo Primer Estudio Nacional de Drogas en Población Escolar. Santiago de Chile, Chile,2016.

39. Observatorio de Comercio Ilícito, Cámara Nacional de Comercio. Informes por industria 2018 [Available from: http://www.observatoriocomercioilicito.cl/estudios/informes-por-industria/#1484577459575-1ef5d87e-6715.

40. Tercera La. Comercio ilegal de cigarrillos en Chile creció un 386% en cinco años. La Tercera. 1st Februery 2017.

41. Paraje G. Illicit Cigarette Trade in Five South American Countries: A Gap Analysis for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2018:nty098-nty.

42. Paraje G. Chile: Tackling the Illicit Tobacco Trade. In: Dutra S, editor. Confronting Illicit Tobacco Trade A Global Review of Country Experiences. Washington DC: The World Bank; 2019.

43. Paraje G, Weeks M. Income nonresponse and inequeality measurement. Revista de Análisis Económico. 2010;25(December 2010):193–221.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 10