Young children are the main victims of fast food induced obesity in Brazil

Autoři: Paul-Georges Reuter aff001;  Lucas Afonso Barbosa Saraiva aff001;  Lisa Weisslinger aff001;  Carla De Stefano aff001;  Frédéric Adnet aff001;  Frédéric Lapostolle aff001
Působiště autorů: SAMU 93—UF Recherche-Enseignement-Qualité, Université Paris, Sorbonne Cité, Inserm U942, Hôpital Avicenne, AP-HP, Bobigny, France aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(10)
Kategorie: Research Article



Obesity and overweight strongly contribute to increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are becoming a worldwide health issue. The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in Latin America. Child obesity is a major issue. Fast food is strongly suspected of contributing to this epidemic of obesity, although there is a lack of evidence.


We studied the correlation between the number of McDonald restaurants and overweight and obesity prevalence by region stratified by gender and age. Data on prevalences were obtained within national studies conducted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Three age sub-groups were analyzed: 5 to 9-year-olds, 10 to 19-year-olds and over 19-year-olds.


There was a very strong positive correlation between overweight rates and the number of McDonald restaurants for both males and females between 5 and 9 years old (R2 respectively = 0.92 and 0.84) and a strong positive correlation for females between 10 and 19 years old (R2 = 0.68).

There was a very strong positive correlation between obesity rates and the number of McDonald restaurants for males between 5 and 9 years old (R2 = 0.95). This positive correlation was strong for both males and females between 10 and 19 years old (R2 respectively = 0.77 and 0.63).

Other correlations were not significant.


A strong correlation between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the number of McDonald restaurants was found for Brazilian children and was most important within the group of youngest children. These results should be taken into consideration by education and prevention campaigns.

Klíčová slova:

Brazil – Diet – Global health – Childhood obesity – Children – Obesity – United States – Morbid obesity


1. GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators, Afshin A, Forouzanfar MH, Reitsma MB, Sur P, Estep K, et al. Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. N Engl J Med. 2017 06;377(1):13–27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1614362 28604169

2. WHO | Obesity and overweight [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2018 Jan 14]. Available from:

3. Malta DC, Andrade SC, Claro RM, Bernal RTI, Monteiro CA. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. Rev Bras Epidemiol Braz J Epidemiol. 2014;17 Suppl 1:267–76.

4. Rtveladze K, Marsh T, Webber L, Kilpi F, Levy D, Conde W, et al. Health and Economic Burden of Obesity in Brazil. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2013 Jul 11 [cited 2017 Aug 24];8(7). Available from:

5. Pozza FS, Nucci LB, Enes CC. Identifying Overweight and Obesity in Brazilian Schoolchildren, 2014. J Public Health Manag Pract JPHMP. 2017 Aug 21;

6. Kumar S, Kelly AS. Review of Childhood Obesity: From Epidemiology, Etiology, and Comorbidities to Clinical Assessment and Treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 Feb;92(2):251–65. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.09.017 28065514

7. Alhéritière A, Montois S, Galinski M, Tazarourte K, Lapostolle F. Worldwide relation between the number of McDonald’s restaurants and the prevalence of obesity. J Intern Med. 2013 Dec;274(6):610–1. doi: 10.1111/joim.12126 23961962

8. 11. Correlation and regression | The BMJ [Internet]. [cited 2018 Jan 14]. Available from:

9. Larsen K, Cook B, Stone MR, Faulkner GEJ. Food access and children’s BMI in Toronto, Ontario: assessing how the food environment relates to overweight and obesity. Int J Public Health. 2015 Jan;60(1):69–77. doi: 10.1007/s00038-014-0620-4 25394951

10. Venn AJ, Thomson RJ, Schmidt MD, Cleland VJ, Curry BA, Gennat HC, et al. Overweight and obesity from childhood to adulthood: a follow-up of participants in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey. Med J Aust. 2007 May 7;186(9):458–60. 17484707

11. Franks PW, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Sievers ML, Bennett PH, Looker HC. Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 11;362(6):485–93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0904130 20147714

12. Mendonça CP, dos Anjos LA. [Dietary and physical activity factors as determinants of the increase in overweight/obesity in Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2004 Jun;20(3):698–709. doi: 10.1590/s0102-311x2004000300006 15263980

13. Hobin EP, Hammond DG, Daniel S, Hanning RM, Manske S. The Happy Meal® Effect: the impact of toy premiums on healthy eating among children in Ontario, Canada. Can J Public Health Rev Can Sante Publique. 2012 May 24;103(4):e244–248.

14. Wansink B, Shimizu M, Camps G. What would Batman eat?: priming children to make healthier fast food choices. Pediatr Obes. 2012 Apr;7(2):121–3. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2011.00003.x 22434751

15. Aiello AM, Marques de Mello L, Souza Nunes M, Soares da Silva A, Nunes A. Prevalence of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in Brazil: A Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2015;11(1):36–42. 25938377

16. Hossain P, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world—a growing challenge. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 18;356(3):213–5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp068177 17229948

17. Ferrari GL de M, Matsudo V, Katzmarzyk PT, Fisberg M. Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9–11 years. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017 Dec;93(6):601–9.

18. Falbe J, Willett WC, Rosner B, Gortmaker SL, Sonneville KR, Field AE. Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct;100(4):1173–81. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088500 25240080

19. Beck AL, Tschann J, Butte NF, Penilla C, Greenspan LC. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Feb;17(2):338–44. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012005514 23308395

20. Rosenheck R. Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk. Obes Rev Off J Int Assoc Study Obes. 2008 Nov;9(6):535–47.

21. Procon-SP multa McDonald’s por publicidade abusiva do McLanche Feliz [Internet]. Governo do Estado de São Paulo. 2013 [cited 2017 Oct 16]. Available from:

22. Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, Beasley R, Murphy R, Mitchell EA, et al. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2014 Dec 8;4(12):e005813. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005813 25488096

23. Datar A, Nicosia N. Association of Exposure to Communities With Higher Ratios of Obesity with Increased Body Mass Index and Risk of Overweight and Obesity Among Parents and Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jan 22

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 10
Nejčtenější tento týden