Replacing murine insulin 1 with human insulin protects NOD mice from diabetes

Autoři: Colleen M. Elso aff001;  Nicholas A. Scott aff001;  Lina Mariana aff001;  Emma I. Masterman aff001;  Andrew P. R. Sutherland aff001;  Helen E. Thomas aff001;  Stuart I. Mannering aff001
Působiště autorů: Immunology and Diabetes Unit, St. Vincent’s Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia aff001;  Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Type 1, or autoimmune, diabetes is caused by the T-cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes akin to human type 1 diabetes. For this reason, the NOD mouse has been the preeminent murine model for human type 1 diabetes research for several decades. However, humanized mouse models are highly sought after because they offer both the experimental tractability of a mouse model and the clinical relevance of human-based research. Autoimmune T-cell responses against insulin, and its precursor proinsulin, play central roles in the autoimmune responses against pancreatic beta cells in both humans and NOD mice. As a first step towards developing a murine model of the human autoimmune response against pancreatic beta cells we set out to replace the murine insulin 1 gene (Ins1) with the human insulin gene (Ins) using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we describe a NOD mouse strain that expresses human insulin in place of murine insulin 1, referred to as HuPI. HuPI mice express human insulin, and C-peptide, in their serum and pancreata and have normal glucose tolerance. Compared with wild type NOD mice, the incidence of diabetes is much lower in HuPI mice. Only 15–20% of HuPI mice developed diabetes after 300 days, compared to more than 60% of unmodified NOD mice. Immune-cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets of HuPI mice was not detectable at 100 days but was clearly evident by 300 days. This work highlights the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 to create mouse models of human diseases that express proteins pivotal to the human disease. Furthermore, it reveals that even subtle changes in proinsulin protect NOD mice from diabetes.

Klíčová slova:

Glucose tolerance – Insulin – Insulitis – Mammalian genomics – Mouse models – Protein sequencing – T cells


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2019 Číslo 12
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