Long-term gait measurements in daily life: Results from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II)

Autoři: Jörn Kiselev aff001;  Timur Nuritdinow aff003;  Dominik Spira aff004;  Nikolaus Buchmann aff004;  Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen aff004;  Christian Lederer aff003;  Martin Daumer aff003;  Ilja Demuth aff004
Působiště autorů: Geriatrics Research Group, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany aff001;  Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Charité Mitte, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany aff002;  Sylvia Lawry Centre for Multiple Sclerosis Research e.V., The Human Motion Institute, Munich, Germany aff003;  Lipid Clinic at the Interdisciplinary Metabolism Center, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany aff004;  Department of Cardiology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité—University Medicine Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany aff005;  Trium Analysis Online GmbH, Munich, Germany aff006;  Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, BCRT—Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225026



Walking ability is an important prerequisite for activity, social participation and independent living. While in most healthy adults, this ability can be assumed as given, limitations in walking ability occur with increasing age. Furthermore, slow walking speed is linked to several chronic conditions and overall morbidity. Measurements of gait parameters can be used as a proxy to detect functional decline and onset of chronic conditions. Up to now, gait characteristics used for this purpose are measured in standardized laboratory settings. There is some evidence, however, that long-term measurements of gait parameters in the living environment have some advantages over short-term laboratory measurements.


We evaluated cross-sectional data from an accelerometric sensor worn in a subgroup of 554 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). Data from the two BASE-II age groups (age between 22–36 years and 60–79 years) were used for the current analysis of accelerometric data for a minimum of two days and a maximum of ten days were available. Real world walking speed, number of steps, maximum coherent distance and total distance were derived as average data per day. Linear regression analyses were performed on the different gait parameters in order to identify significant determinants. Additionally, Mann-Whitney-U-tests were performed to detect sex-specific differences.


Age showed to be significantly associated with real world walking speed and with the total distance covered per day, while BMI contributed negatively to the number of walking steps, maximum coherent distance and total distance walked. Additionally, sex was associated with walking steps. However, R2-values for all models were low. Overall, women had significantly more walking steps and a larger coherent distance per day when compared to men. When separated by age group, this difference was significant only in the older participants. Additionally, walking speed was significantly higher in women compared to men in the subgroup of older people.


Age- and sex-specific differences have to be considered when objective gait parameters are measured, e.g. in the context of clinical risk assessment. For this purpose normative data, differentiating for age and sex would have to be established to allow reliable classification of long-term measurements of gait.

Klíčová slova:

Accelerometers – Age groups – Elderly – Gait analysis – Geriatrics – Systematic reviews – Walking


1. Perry J. Gait Analysis. 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated; 2010. 576 p.

2. Rydwik E, Bergland A, Forsén L, Frändin K. Investigation into the reliability and validity of the measurement of elderly people’s clinical walking speed: a systematic review. Physiother Theory Pract. 2012 Apr;28(3):238–56. doi: 10.3109/09593985.2011.601804 21929322

3. Adell E, Wehmhörner S, Rydwik E. The test-retest reliability of 10 meters maximal walking speed in older people living in a residential care unit. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2001. 2013 Jun;36(2):74–7.

4. Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, Penninx BWHJ, Nicklas BJ, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, et al. Prognostic value of usual gait speed in well-functioning older people—results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Oct;53(10):1675–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53501.x 16181165

5. Peel NM, Kuys SS, Klein K. Gait speed as a measure in geriatric assessment in clinical settings: a systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jan;68(1):39–46. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gls174 22923430

6. Pérez-Zepeda MU, González-Chavero JG, Salinas-Martinez R, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY. J Frailty Aging. 2015;4(3):139–43. doi: 10.14283/jfa.2015.63 26889463

7. Karpman C, Benzo R. Gait speed as a measure of functional status in COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:1315–20. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S54481 25473277

8. Pamoukdjian F, Paillaud E, Zelek L, Laurent M, Lévy V, Landre T, et al. Measurement of gait speed in older adults to identify complications associated with frailty: A systematic review. J Geriatr Oncol. 2015 Nov;6(6):484–96. doi: 10.1016/j.jgo.2015.08.006 26362356

9. Clegg A, Rogers L, Young J. Diagnostic test accuracy of simple instruments for identifying frailty in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review. Age Ageing. 2015 Jan;44(1):148–52. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afu157 25355618

10. Liu B, Hu X, Zhang Q, Fan Y, Li J, Zou R, et al. Usual walking speed and all-cause mortality risk in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gait Posture. 2016 Feb;44:172–7. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.12.008 27004653

11. Brown JC, Harhay MO, Harhay MN. Walking cadence and mortality among community-dwelling older adults. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Sep;29(9):1263–9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-014-2926-6 24934147

12. Abellan van Kan G, Rolland Y, Andrieu S, Bauer J, Beauchet O, Bonnefoy M, et al. Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009 Dec;13(10):881–9. doi: 10.1007/s12603-009-0246-z 19924348

13. Asher L, Aresu M, Falaschetti E, Mindell J. Most older pedestrians are unable to cross the road in time: a cross-sectional study. Age Ageing. 2012 Sep;41(5):690–4. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afs076 22695790

14. Webb EA, Bell S, Lacey RE, Abell JG. Crossing the road in time: Inequalities in older people’s walking speeds. J Transp Health. 2017 Jun;5:77–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jth.2017.02.009 28702358

15. Shankar A, McMunn A, Demakakos P, Hamer M, Steptoe A. Social isolation and loneliness: Prospective associations with functional status in older adults. Health Psychol Off J Div Health Psychol Am Psychol Assoc. 2017;36(2):179–87.

16. Goldberg A, Schepens S. Measurement error and minimum detectable change in 4-meter gait speed in older adults. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011 Dec;23(5–6):406–12. doi: 10.1007/bf03325236 22526072

17. Peters DM, Fritz SL, Krotish DE. Assessing the reliability and validity of a shorter walk test compared with the 10-Meter Walk Test for measurements of gait speed in healthy, older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2001. 2013 Mar;36(1):24–30.

18. Brodie MA, Coppens MJ, Ejupi A, Gschwind YJ, Annegarn J, Schoene D, et al. Comparison between clinical gait and daily-life gait assessments of fall risk in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017 Nov;17(11):2274–82. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12979 28176431

19. Schimpl M, Moore C, Lederer C, Neuhaus A, Sambrook J, Danesh J, et al. Association between walking speed and age in healthy, free-living individuals using mobile accelerometry—a cross-sectional study. PloS One. 2011;6(8):e23299. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023299 21853107

20. Bertram L, Böckenhoff A, Demuth I, Düzel S, Eckardt R, Li S-C, et al. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Jun;43(3):703–12. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt018 23505255

21. Gerstorf D, Bertram L, Lindenberger U, Pawelec G, Demuth I, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, et al. Editorial. Gerontology. 2016;62(3):311–5. doi: 10.1159/000441495 26820471

22. Daumer M, Thaler K, Kruis E, Feneberg W, Staude G, Scholz M. Steps towards a miniaturized, robust and autonomous measurement device for the long-term monitoring of patient activity: ActiBelt. Biomed Tech (Berl). 2007 Feb;52(1):149–55.

23. Schimpl M, Lederer C, Daumer M. Development and validation of a new method to measure walking speed in free-living environments using the actibelt® platform. PloS One. 2011;6(8):e23080. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023080 21850254

24. Lin LI. A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility. Biometrics. 1989 Mar;45(1):255–68. 2720055

25. McBride RB, McBride G, McBride GB, Mcbride G, McBride JB, McBride GB, et al. A proposal for strength-of-agreement criteria for Lins Concordance Correlation Coefficient. 2005 Jan 1 [cited 2019 Sep 20]; Available from: https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=e3cfffed-a777-439b-b244-b4acbaf7f0c7

26. Motl RW, Weikert M, Suh Y, Sosnoff JJ, Pula J, Soaz C, et al. Accuracy of the actibelt(®) accelerometer for measuring walking speed in a controlled environment among persons with multiple sclerosis. Gait Posture. 2012 Feb;35(2):192–6. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.09.005 21945386

27. LaRoche DP, Greenleaf BL, Croce RV, McGaughy JA. Interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance in 50-80-year-olds. Age Dordr Neth. 2014;36(4):9693.

28. Ilgin D, Ozalevli S, Kilinc O, Sevinc C, Cimrin AH, Ucan ES. Gait speed as a functional capacity indicator in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Thorac Med. 2011 Jul;6(3):141–6. doi: 10.4103/1817-1737.82448 21760846

29. Sedaghat S, Darweesh SKL, Verlinden VJA, van der Geest JN, Dehghan A, Franco OH, et al. Kidney function, gait pattern and fall in the general population: a cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc—Eur Ren Assoc. 2018 Dec 1;33(12):2165–72.

30. Li C-I, Li T-C, Lin W-Y, Liu C-S, Hsu C-C, Hsiung CA, et al. Combined association of chronic disease and low skeletal muscle mass with physical performance in older adults in the Sarcopenia and Translational Aging Research in Taiwan (START) study. BMC Geriatr. 2015 Feb 18;15:11. doi: 10.1186/s12877-015-0011-6 25879214

31. Samson MM, Crowe A, de Vreede PL, Dessens JA, Duursma SA, Verhaar HJ. Differences in gait parameters at a preferred walking speed in healthy subjects due to age, height and body weight. Aging Milan Italy. 2001 Feb;13(1):16–21.

32. Kuys SS, Peel NM, Klein K, Slater A, Hubbard RE. Gait speed in ambulant older people in long term care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014 Mar;15(3):194–200. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.10.015 24388775

33. Sustakoski A, Perera S, VanSwearingen JM, Studenski SA, Brach JS. The impact of testing protocol on recorded gait speed. Gait Posture. 2015 Jan;41(1):329–31. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.020 25468684

34. Yamada M, Tanaka H, Mori S, Nagai K, Uemura K, Tanaka B, et al. Fallers choose an early transfer gaze strategy during obstacle avoidance in dual-task condition. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2011 Aug;23(4):316–9. doi: 10.3275/7258 20834203

35. Notthoff N, Drewelies J, Kazanecka P, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Norman K, Düzel S, et al. Feeling older, walking slower-but only if someone’s watching. Subjective age is associated with walking speed in the laboratory, but not in real life. Eur J Ageing. 2018 Dec;15(4):425–33. doi: 10.1007/s10433-017-0450-3 30532679

36. Gates DH, Wilken JM, Scott SJ, Sinitski EH, Dingwell JB. Kinematic strategies for walking across a destabilizing rock surface. Gait Posture. 2012 Jan;35(1):36–42. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.08.001 21890361

37. Chang W-R, Chang C-C, Lesch MF, Matz S. Gait adaptation on surfaces with different degrees of slipperiness. Appl Ergon. 2017 Mar;59(Pt A):333–41. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.09.008 27890145

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12