Seasonal changes of the diurnal variation of precipitation in the upper Río Chagres basin, Panamá

Autoři: Tosiyuki Nakaegawa aff001;  Reinhardt Pinzon aff002;  Jose Fabrega aff002;  Johnny A. Cuevas aff004;  Hector A. De Lima aff004;  Eric Cordoba aff004;  Keisuke Nakayama aff005;  Josue Ivan Batista Lao aff006;  Alcely Lau Melo aff007;  Diego Arturo Gonzalez aff007;  Shoji Kusunoki aff008
Působiště autorů: Department of Applied Meteorology Research, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan aff001;  Centro de Investigaciones Hidráulicas e Hidrotécnicas, Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá aff002;  Sistema Nacional de Investigación, Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología e Innovación, Panamá, Panamá aff003;  Sección de Recursos Hídricos, Autoridad del Canal Panamá, Panamá, Panamá aff004;  Department of Civil Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan aff005;  Instituto Profesional y Técnico de Capira, Capira, Panamá aff006;  Hydrometeorological Departnment, Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica S.A., Panamá, Panamá aff007;  Department of Earth System Modeling Research, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


This study elucidated the characteristics of climatological seasonal changes in the diurnal variations of precipitation at four ground stations in the upper Río Chagres basin in the Panama Canal watershed. The seasonal changes differed among the stations, although they are located within an area of only 414 km2. Precipitation peaks in the early afternoon at 1500 local standard time (LST) were observed at all the stations. At Chamon, monthly-mean hourly precipitation at every hour exceeded 0.3 mm h–1 throughout November and December. The occurrence of morning precipitation in January and March distinguished the seasonal precipitation pattern at Esperanza from the pattern at the other stations. Analyses of the seasonal changes in the diurnal variation with pattern correlations and rotational empirical orthogonal functions grouped the stations into two pairs: no morning peak at Chico and Río Piedras in the downstream basin and morning peak at Chamon and Esperanza in the upstream basin.

Klíčová slova:

Climatology – Diurnal variations – El Niño-Southern Oscillation – Meteorology – Panama – Rain – Seasons – Wind


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