Community-based sero-prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections in South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia


Autoři: Adugna Endale Woldegiorgis aff001;  Woldearegay Erku aff003;  Girmay Medhin aff001;  Nega Berhe aff001;  Mengistu Legesse aff001
Působiště autorů: Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia aff001;  School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia aff002;  Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226890

Souhrn

Background

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The magnitude of HBV and HCV infections in Ethiopia has not been well studied at community level. This study aimed at investigating the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of HBV and HCV among HBV unvaccinated community members in South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts from March to May 2018. Structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant clinical and socio-demographic data. Three milliliter of blood sample was collected from each study participant and screened for HBV and HCV using one step hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test strip and one step HCV test strip, respectively. Samples found positive for HBsAg were further tested using immunoassay of Alere DetermineTM HBsAg (Alere Inc., USA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0.

Results

A total of 625 (51.4% males, age 6–80 years, mean age ± SD = 30.83 ± 13.51 years) individuals participated in the study. The sero-prevalence for HBV infection was 8.0% as detected using one step HBsAg test strip, while it was 7.2% using Alere DetermineTM HBsAg test. The sero-prevalence for HCV infection was 1.9%. Two (0.3%) of the participants were seropositive for both HBV and HCV infections. High sero-prevalence for HBV infection was associated with weakness and fatigue (AOR = 5.20; 95% CI: 1.58, 17.15), while high sero-prevalence of HCV infection was associated with age group between 46 and 65 years (AOR = 13.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 152.41).

Conclusion

This study revealed higher-intermediate endemicity level of HBV infection and low to intermediate endemicity level of HCV infection in the study area. Clinical symptoms like weakness and fatigue were found to be indictors for HBV infection, while individuals in the age group between 46 and 65 years were at higher risk for HCV infection. Provision of community- based health education; vaccination, mass screening and providing treatment would have utmost importance in reducing the transmission of these diseases in the present study area.

Klíčová slova:

Abdominal pain – Age groups – Ethiopia – Fatigue – Hepatitis B virus – Hepatitis C virus – Myalgia – Hepatitis A virus


Zdroje

1. WHOa. World Health Organization: hepatitis 2016:available at http://www.who.int/topics/hepatitis/en/ (accessed March 23, 2018).

2. El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2012 May;142(6):1264–73.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.12.061 22537432. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3338949. Epub 2012/04/28. eng.

3. Wasley A, Grytdal S, Gallagher K. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis—United States, 2006. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries (Washington, DC: 2002). 2008 Mar 21;57(2):1–24. 18354374. Epub 2008/03/21. eng.

4. WHOa. World Health Organization: Global hepatitis report, Geneva. 2017:available at www.who.int/hepatitis/publications/globalhepatitis-report2017/en/ (accessed November 14, 8)

5. Martin P, Lau DT, Nguyen MH, Janssen HL, Dieterich DT, Peters MG, et al. A Treatment Algorithm for the Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: 2015 Update. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2015 Nov;13(12):2071–87.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.07.007 26188135. Epub 2015/07/19. eng.

6. Moyer VA. Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of internal medicine. 2013 Sep 3;159(5):349–57. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-5-201309030-00672 23798026. Epub 2013/06/26. eng.

7. El Khoury AC, Wallace C, Klimack WK, Razavi H. Economic burden of hepatitis C-associated diseases: Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Americas. Journal of medical economics. 2012;15(5):887–96. doi: 10.3111/13696998.2012.681332 22458755. Epub 2012/03/31. eng.

8. Shire NJ, Sherman KE. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus: A Battle on New Frontiers. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 2015 Dec;44(4):699–716. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2015.07.002 26600215. Epub 2015/11/26. eng.

9. Lok AS. Chronic hepatitis B. The New England journal of medicine. 2002 May 30;346(22):1682–3. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200205303462202 12037146. Epub 2002/05/31. eng.

10. Seeff LB. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md). 2002 Nov;36(5 Suppl 1):S35–46. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2002.36806 12407575. Epub 2002/10/31. eng.

11. WHOb. World Health Organization: Hepatitis B fact sheet 2017:available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/index.html (accessed June, 2018).

12. Perz JF, Armstrong GL, Farrington LA, Hutin YJ, Bell BP. The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide. Journal of hepatology. 2006 Oct;45(4):529–38. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2006.05.013 16879891. Epub 2006/08/02. eng.

13. WHOa. World Health Organization: Hepatitis C 2011:available at http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/TER_100914_Hep_B_C%20_EU_neighbourhood.pdf (accessed September 27, 2018)

14. WHO. World Health Organization: Hepatitis C Virus Prevention 2018:available at: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c (accessed November 18, 2018)

15. Kohli A, Shaffer A, Sherman A, Kottilil S. Treatment of hepatitis C: a systematic review. Jama. 2014 Aug 13;312(6):631–40. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.7085 25117132. Epub 2014/08/15. eng.

16. WHO. World Health Organization: Combating Hepatitis B and C to Reach Elimination by 2030, Geneva, Switzerland. 2016: available at https://www.who.int/hepatitis/publications/hep-elimination-by-2030-brief/en/ (accessed September 29, 2018) 2016.

17. Bane A, Patil A, M. K. Healthcare cost and access to care for viral hepatitis in Ethiopia. IJIAS. 2014;9(4):1718–23.

18. WHO. Global policy report on the prevention and control of viral hepatitis. 2013:p.536 available at http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/hepatitis/global_report/en/ (accessed September 16, 2018)

19. ONM. Organization for Natural Medicine (ONM): Lower Omo Project Area. 2017: p. avalable at http://www.onmloweromo.org/workarea.html (accessed November 22, 2018). 2017.

20. CSAE. Central Statistical Agency Of Ethiopia: 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Tables 2.1, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2 and 3.4. 2008.

21. Lilay A, Asamene N, Bekele A, Mengesha M, Wendabeku M, Tareke I, et al. Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013: epidemiological and entomological investigations. BMC infectious diseases. 2017 May 15;17(1):343. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2435-4 28506254. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5432991. Epub 2017/05/17. eng.

22. Taye S, Abdulkerim A, Hussen M. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among patients with chronic hepatitis at Bereka Medical Center, Southeast Ethiopia: a retrospective study. BMC research notes. 2014 Apr 29;7:272. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-272 24774645. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4032359. Epub 2014/04/30. eng.

23. Belyhun Y, Maier M, Mulu A, Diro E, Liebert UG. Hepatitis viruses in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC infectious diseases. 2016 Dec 19;16(1):761. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-2090-1 27993129. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5168848. Epub 2016/12/21. eng.

24. Chisenga CC, Musukuma K, Chilengi R, Zurcher S, Munamunungu V, Siyunda A, et al. Field performance of the Determine HBsAg point-of-care test for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus co-infection among HIV patients in Zambia. Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology. 2018 Jan;98:5–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2017.11.005 29175231. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5794713. Epub 2017/11/28. eng.

25. Shivkumar S, Peeling R, Jafari Y, Joseph L, Pai NP. Rapid point-of-care first-line screening tests for hepatitis B infection: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy (1980–2010). The American journal of gastroenterology. 2012 Sep;107(9):1306–13. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.141 22641308. Epub 2012/05/30. eng.

26. WHOb. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Assays: Operational Characteristics (Phase 1) Report 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001. 2011.

27. Ott JJ, Stevens GA, Groeger J, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: new estimates of age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012 Mar 9;30(12):2212–9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.116 22273662. Epub 2012/01/26. eng.

28. Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet (London, England). 2015 Oct 17;386(10003):1546–55. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61412-X 26231459. Epub 2015/08/02. eng.

29. WHOb. World Health Organization: Hepatitis B fact sheet 2016:available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/# (accessed November 16, 2018).

30. Abera B, Adem Y, Yimer M, Mulu W, Zenebe Y, Mekonnen Z. Community seroprevalence of hepatitis B, C and human immunodeficiency virus in adult population in gojjam zones, northwest Ethiopia. Virology journal. 2017 Feb 6;14(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12985-017-0696-6 28166829. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5294870. Epub 2017/02/09. eng.

31. Mora N, Adams WH, Kliethermes S, Dugas L, Balasubramanian N, Sandhu J, et al. A Synthesis of Hepatitis C prevalence estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa: 2000–2013. BMC infectious diseases. 2016 Jun 13;16:283. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1584-1 27296465. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4906983. Epub 2016/06/15. eng.

32. Chaabna K, Kouyoumjian SP, Abu-Raddad LJ. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS one. 2016;11(2):e0149966. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149966 26900839. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4764686. Epub 2016/02/24. eng.

33. Malhotra R, Soin D, Grover P, Galhotra S, Khutan H, Kaur N. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in hemodialysis patients: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of North India. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine. 2016 Jan-Jun;7(1):72–4. doi: 10.4103/0976-9668.175076 27003974. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4780172. Epub 2016/03/24. eng.

34. Birku T, Gelaw B, Moges F, Assefa A. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses infection among military personnel at Bahir Dar Armed Forces General Hospital, Ethiopia. BMC research notes. 2015 Dec 1;8:737. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1719-2 26625733. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4666071. Epub 2015/12/03. eng.

35. Gelaw B, Y M. Prevalence of HBV, HCV and malaria parasiets among blood donors in Amhara and tigray regional states. Ethiop J Health Dev 2007;2(22):3–7.

36. Molla S, Munshea A, Nibret E. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Virology journal. 2015 Dec 2;12:204. doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0437-7 26626263. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4667425. Epub 2015/12/03. eng.

37. Adoga MP, Banwat EB, Forbi JC, Nimzing L, Pam CR, Gyar SD, et al. Human immunonodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus: sero-prevalence, co-infection and risk factors among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of infection in developing countries. 2009 Aug 30;3(7):539–47. doi: 10.3855/jidc.472 19762972. Epub 2009/09/19. eng.

38. Saravanan S, Velu V, Nandakumar S, Madhavan V, Shanmugasundaram U, Murugavel KG, et al. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection among patients with chronic liver disease. Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi. 2009 Apr;42(2):122–8. 19597643. Epub 2009/07/15. eng.

39. Tsatsralt-Od B, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, Endo K, Inoue J, Okamoto H. High prevalence of dual or triple infection of hepatitis B, C, and delta viruses among patients with chronic liver disease in Mongolia. Journal of medical virology. 2005 Dec;77(4):491–9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.20482 16254981. Epub 2005/10/29. eng.

40. Ashrafi M, Modabbernia A, Dalir M, Taslimi S, Karami M, Ostovaneh MR, et al. Predictors of mental and physical health in non-cirrhotic patients with viral hepatitis: a case control study. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2012 Sep;73(3):218–24. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.06.006 22850263. Epub 2012/08/02. eng.

41. Evon DM, Wahed AS, Johnson G, Khalili M, Lisker-Melman M, Fontana RJ, et al. Fatigue in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Living in North America: Results from the Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN). Digestive diseases and sciences. 2016 Apr;61(4):1186–96. doi: 10.1007/s10620-015-4006-0 26831489. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4791302. Epub 2016/02/03. eng.

42. Hann HW, Han SH, Block TM, Harris M, Maa JF, Fisher RT, et al. Symptomatology and health attitudes of chronic hepatitis B patients in the USA. Journal of viral hepatitis. 2008 Jan;15(1):42–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2007.00895.x 18088244. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2229833. Epub 2007/12/20. eng.

43. Karaivazoglou K, Iconomou G, Triantos C, Hyphantis T, Thomopoulos K, Lagadinou M, et al. Fatigue and depressive symptoms associated with chronic viral hepatitis patients. health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Annals of hepatology. 2010 Oct-Dec;9(4):419–27. 21057161. Epub 2010/11/09. eng.

44. WHO/PAHO. World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization: Control of Yellow Fever, Field Guide. 2005;Washington, Scientific and Technical Publication No. 603, ISBN 92 75 11603 2

45. Sutherland LJ, Cash AA, Huang YJ, Sang RC, Malhotra I, Moormann AM, et al. Serologic evidence of arboviral infections among humans in Kenya. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2011 Jul;85(1):158–61. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0203 21734142. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3122361. Epub 2011/07/08. eng.

46. Umumararungu E, Ntaganda F, Kagira J, Maina N. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Its Risk Factors among Patients Attending Rwanda Military Hospital, Rwanda. BioMed research international. 2017;2017:5841272. doi: 10.1155/2017/5841272 28246598. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5299157. Epub 2017/03/02. eng.

47. Abdel-Aziz F, Habib M, Mohamed MK, Abdel-Hamid M, Gamil F, Madkour S, et al. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a community in the Nile Delta: population description and HCV prevalence. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md). 2000 Jul;32(1):111–5. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2000.8438 10869297. Epub 2000/06/28. eng.

48. Ramarokoto CE, Rakotomanana F, Ratsitorahina M, Raharimanga V, Razafindratsimandresy R, Randremanana R, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in urban areas of Antananarivo, Madagascar. BMC infectious diseases. 2008 Feb 29;8:25. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-25 18312652. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2292193. Epub 2008/03/04. eng.

49. Rao MR, Naficy AB, Darwish MA, Darwish NM, Schisterman E, Clemens JD, et al. Further evidence for association of hepatitis C infection with parenteral schistosomiasis treatment in Egypt. BMC infectious diseases. 2002 Dec 4;2:29. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-2-29 12464161. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC139974. Epub 2002/12/05. eng.

50. Nerrienet E, Pouillot R, Lachenal G, Njouom R, Mfoupouendoun J, Bilong C, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in cameroon: A cohort-effect. Journal of medical virology. 2005 Jun;76(2):208–14. doi: 10.1002/jmv.20343 15834878. Epub 2005/04/19. eng.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 12