Agriculture development and CO2 emissions nexus in Saudi Arabia

Autoři: Haider Mahmood aff001;  Tarek Tawfik Yousef Alkhateeb aff001;  Maleeha Mohammed Zaaf Al-Qahtani aff003;  Zafrul Allam aff001;  Nawaz Ahmad aff004;  Maham Furqan aff005
Působiště autorů: College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia aff001;  Kafr Elshiekh University, Kafr Elshiekh, Egypt aff002;  College of Education, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Dilam, Saudi Arabia aff003;  University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan aff004;  S&P Global Market Intelligence, Islamabad, Pakistan aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


The agriculture sector may help to improve the environment of any country. The purpose of this research is to test the existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis while keeping the energy consumption and agriculture share in income into account and analyze their effects on the CO2 emissions per capita of Saudi Arabia. We test both symmetrical, asymmetrical and quadratic effects of agriculture sector on the CO2 emissions. An inverted U-shaped relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and CO2 emissions per capita is found. Hence, EKC hypothesis is validated with a turning point at GDP per capita of 77,068 constant Saudi Riyal. Further, a negative and significant effect of agriculture sector on the CO2 emissions per capita has been found both in symmetrical and asymmetrical analyses. The magnitudes of effects of increasing and decreasing agriculture share are found statistically different on the CO2 emissions, and rising agriculture share in GDP has larger effect than that of decreasing agriculture share. An inverted U-shaped relationship is also found between agriculture share in GDP and CO2 emissions per capita with a turning point at 3.22% agriculture share in GDP.

Klíčová slova:

Agriculture – Carbon dioxide – Crops – Economic analysis – economic growth – Finance – Pollution – Saudi Arabia


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2019 Číslo 12
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