Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of patients with diabetic retinopathy in Slovakia: 12-month results from the DIARET SK study

Autoři: Marta Ondrejkova aff001;  Peter Jackuliak aff002;  Emil Martinka aff003;  Marian Mokan aff004;  James Foley aff005;  Jana Fabkova aff006;  Karol Gecik aff006;  Iveta Tvrda aff006;  Miroslav Helbich aff007;  Monika Gajdosova aff001
Působiště autorů: Specialized Hospital in Ophthalmology, Zvolen, Slovakia aff001;  5 Clinic of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of the Comenius University Bratislava and University Hospital Bratislava, Workplace Hospital, Ruzinov, Slovakia aff002;  National Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lubochňa, Slovakia aff003;  1 Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin of the Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia aff004;  Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey, United States of America aff005;  Novartis Slovakia s.r.o., Bratislava, Slovakia aff006;  Caldera s.r.o. Banska Stiavnica, Banska Stiavnica, Slovakia aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223788



To evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Slovakian patients with Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the DIARET SK study.

Patients and methods

An epidemiological multi-center survey that included 4,078 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) from 51 diabetologists and 47 ophthalmologists. Data were collected from February to December 2015.


The final data set consisted of 4,014 patients; 3,700 were enrolled (Type 2 DM = 3,405, Type 1 DM = 295) using a quasi-random approach; 16 (Type 2 DM = 15, Type 1 DM = 1) patients in the pre-specified group had DM duration of <5 years with a history of DR while 298 patients (Type 2 DM = 204, Type 1 DM = 94) had DM duration of ≥ 20 years. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of patients at diagnosis for Types 2 and 1 DM was 53.4 (9.5) and 27.6 (12.9) years, respectively. The mean (SD) glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 7.5 (1.4) and 8.5 (1.6) in Types 2 and 1 DM patients, respectively, whereas a slightly higher proportion of patients had >11.0 HbA1c in Type 1 DM (5.8%) than Type 2 (2.0%). The mean (SD) duration of Type 2 DM was shorter compared with Type 1 (7.5 [5.2] vs 10.3 [6.9] years). In Type 2 DM patients, there were 516 (15.5%) cases of DR, 19 (0.56%) of proliferative DR (PDR), and 106 (3.11%) of diabetic macular edema (DME). In Type 1 DM patients, there were 86 (29.15%) cases of DR, 10 (3.39%) PDR, and 12 (4.07%) DME.


In Slovakian patients with DM, the duration of disease and higher HbA1c were the most prevalent factors that contributed to the development of DR and DME.

Klíčová slova:

Diabetic retinopathy – Epidemiology – Type 1 diabetes – Slovakian people – Slovakia


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