1. Swan CM, Pickett STA, Szlavecz K, Warren P, Willey KT. Biodiversity and community composition in urban ecosystems: coupled human, special, and metacommunity processes. In: Niemelä J, editor. Urban ecology: patterns, processes and applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014. p. 179–186.
2. Bayless ER, Greeman TK. Hydrology and geochemistry of a slag-affected aquifer and chemical characteristics of slag-affected ground water, northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois. Water-Resources Investigations Report. 1998;97:4198.
3. Lundholm JT, Richardson PJ. MINI‐REVIEW: Habitat analogues for reconciliation ecology in urban and industrial environments. J Appl Ecol. 2010 Oct 1;47(5):966–75.
4. Bayless ER, Schulz MS. Mineral precipitation and dissolution at two slag-disposal sites in northwestern Indiana, USA. Environmental Geology. 2003 Dec 1;45(2):252–61.
5. Kay RT, Greeman TK, Duwelius RF, King RB, Nazimek JE, Petrovski DM. Characterization of fill deposits in the Calumet Region of northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois. Water-Resources Investigations Report. 1997;96:4126.
6. Reddy KR, Amaya-Santos G. Effects of variable site conditions on phytoremediation of mixed contaminants: field-scale investigation at big marsh site. J Environ Eng. 2017 May 31;143(9):04017057.
7. Reddy KR, Amaya-Santos G, Yargicoglu E, Cooper DE, Negri MC. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and PAHs at slag fill site: three-year field-scale investigation. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 2018 Jan 2;13(1):32–47.
8. Park 564-Big Marsh schematic design [Internet] Chicago: Chicago Park District; c2014 [cited 2018 Feb 26]. Available from: https://chicagoparkdistrict.com/sites/default/files/documents/page/Park_564_-_Big_Marsh_Framework_Plan_June_2014.pdf.
9. Soil contamination puts South Works project, which would turn old U.S. Steel site into 20,000-home development, on hold [Internet] Chicago: Chicago Tribune; c2018 Apr 20 [cited 2019 Sep 11]. Available from: https://www.chicagotribune.com/columns/ryan-ori/ct-biz-south-works-on-hold-ryan-ori-20180419-story.html.
10. Antonelli PM, Fraser LH, Gardner WC, Broersma K, Karakatsoulis J, Phillips ME. Long term carbon sequestration potential of biosolids-amended copper and molybdenum mine tailings following mine site reclamation. Ecological Engineering. 2018 Jul 1;117:38–49.
11. Clements FE. Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institution of Washington; 1916.
12. Cowles HC. The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan. Part I.-Geographical Relations of the Dune Floras. Bot Gaz. 1899 Feb 1;27(2):95–117.
13. Kazakou E, Vile D, Shipley B, Gallet C, Garnier E. Co‐variations in litter decomposition, leaf traits and plant growth in species from a Mediterranean old‐field succession. Funct Ecol. 2006 Feb;20(1):21–30.
14. Connell JH, Slatyer RO. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. Am Nat. 1977 Nov 1;111(982):1119–44.
15. Stark KE, Lundholm JT, Larson DW. Arrested development of soil on alvars of Ontario, Canada: implications for conservation and restoration. Natural Areas Journal. 2004 Apr;24(2):95–100.
16. Tomlinson S, Matthes U, Richardson PJ, Larson DW. The ecological equivalence of quarry floors to alvars. Appl Veg Sci. 2007 Feb 1;11(1):73–82.
17. Holl KD. Long‐term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. J Appl Ecol. 2002 Dec;39(6):960–70.
18. Groninger J, Skousen J, Angel P, Barton C, Burger J, Zipper C. Mine reclamation practices to enhance forest development through natural succession. In: Adams Mary Beth, ed. The Forestry Reclamation Approach: guide to successful reforestation of mined lands. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-169. Newtown Square, PA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 8–1–8–7. 2017:1–7.
19. Smith FC, Johnson AH, Dranoff M, Wibiralske A. Biomass and Nutrient Accumulation During Natural Afforestation of Iron‐Smelting Slag. Restor Ecol. 1997 Mar;5(1):56–65.
20. Řehounková K, Prach K. Spontaneous vegetation succession in gravel–sand pits: a potential for restoration. Restor Ecol. 2008 Jun;16(2):305–12.
21. Chapin FS. Integrated responses of plants to stress. BioScience. 1991 Jan 1;41(1):29–36.
22. USGS National Map Viewer [Internet]. United States Geological Survey; c2018 Oct 22 [cited 2019 Sep 11]. Available from: https://viewer.nationalmap.gov/advanced-viewer/
23. NOWData—NOAA online weather data [Internet]. National Weather Service Forecast Office; c2018 [cited 2019 Mar 4]. Available from: https://w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=lot.
24. Methods [Internet]. Northwest Indiana Restoration Monitoring Inventory; c2010 [cited 2019 Mar 4]. Available from: http://nirmi.iun.edu/methods.php.
25. Taft JB, Wilhelm GS, Ladd DM, Masters LA. Floristic quality assessment for vegetation in Illinois, a method for assessing vegetation integrity. Westville, Illinois: Illinois Native Plant Society; 1997 Nov.
26. Freyman WA, Masters LA, Packard S. The Universal Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) Calculator: an online tool for ecological assessment and monitoring. Methods Ecol Evol. 2016 Mar;7(3):380–3.
27. Abràmoff MD, Magalhães PJ, Ram SJ. Image processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics International. 2004;11(7):36–42.
28. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.5.1 [software]. 2013 [cited 2019 Jun 12]. Available from: http://www.R-project.org/.
29. Koleff P, Gaston KJ, Lennon JJ. Measuring beta diversity for presence–absence data. J Anim Ecol. 2003 May 1;72(3):367–82.
30. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, O’hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MH, Wagner H. Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 1.17–4. http://cran.r-project.org. 2010 Mar 17;23:2010.
31. Cornelissen JH, Lavorel S, Garnier E, Diaz S, Buchmann N, Gurvich DE, et al. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian journal of Botany. 2003;51(4):335–80.
32. Perez-Harguindeguy N, Diaz S, Garnier E, Lavorel S, Poorter H, Jaureguiberry P, et al. Corrigendum to: new handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany. 2016;64(8):715–6.
33. Illinois Wildflowers. [Internet]. Hilty J; c2017 [cited 2019 Mar 4]. Available from: https://www.illinoiswildflowers.info.
34. Kattge J, Diaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P, Bönisch G, Garnier E, Westoby M, Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cornelissen JH. TRY–a global database of plant traits. Glob Chang Biol. 2011 Sep;17(9):2905–35.
35. Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R. Comparative plant ecology: a functional approach to common British species. Springer; 2014 Nov 14.
36. Ter Braak CJ. Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology. 1986 Oct;67(5):1167–79.
37. Dolédec S, Chessel D, Ter Braak CJ, Champely S. Matching species traits to environmental variables: a new three-table ordination method. Environ Ecol Stat. 1996 Jun 1;3(2):143–66.
38. Dray S, Dufour AB. The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists. J Stat Softw. 2007 Jan;22(4):1–20.
39. Xiong ZT. Lead uptake and effects on seed germination and plant growth in a Pb hyperaccumulator Brassica pekinensis Rupr. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998 Feb 24;60(2):285–91. doi: 10.1007/s001289900623 9470991
40. Peralta JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL, Tiemann KJ, Gomez E, Arteaga S, Rascon E, Parsons JG. Uptake and effects of five heavy metals on seed germination and plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Jun 24;66(6):727–34. doi: 10.1007/s001280069 11353374
41. Li W, Khan MA, Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y. Effects of heavy metals on seed germination and early seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Growth Regul. 2005 May 1;46(1):45–50.
42. Di Salvatore M, Carafa AM, Carratù G. Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates. Chemosphere. 2008 Nov 1;73(9):1461–4. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.061 18768198
43. Sethy SK, Ghosh S. Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013 Jul;4(2):272. doi: 10.4103/0976-9668.116964 24082715
44. Kraft NJ, Adler PB, Godoy O, James EC, Fuller S, Levine JM. Community assembly, coexistence and the environmental filtering metaphor. Funct Ecol. 2015 May;29(5):592–9.
45. Cadotte MW, Tucker CM. Should environmental filtering be abandoned? Trends Ecol Evol. 2017 Jun 1;32(6):429–37. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.03.004 28363350
46. Weiher E, Clarke GP, Keddy PA. Community assembly rules, morphological dispersion, and the coexistence of plant species. Oikos. 1998 Mar 1:309–22.
47. Fukami T, Martijn Bezemer T, Mortimer SR, van der Putten WH. Species divergence and trait convergence in experimental plant community assembly. Ecol Lett. 2005 Dec;8(12):1283–90.
48. Kraft NJ, Valencia R, Ackerly DD. Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science. 2008 Oct 24;322(5901):580–2. doi: 10.1126/science.1160662 18948539
49. Cornwell WK, Ackerly DD. Community assembly and shifts in plant trait distributions across an environmental gradient in coastal California. Ecol Monogr. 2009 Feb;79(1):109–26.
50. Bello FD, Lavorel S, Lavergne S, Albert CH, Boulangeat I, Mazel F, Thuiller W. Hierarchical effects of environmental filters on the functional structure of plant communities: a case study in the French Alps. Ecography. 2013 Mar;36(3):393–402.
51. Grime JP. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat. 1977 Nov 1;111(982):1169–94.
52. Molau U. Relationships between flowering phenology and life history strategies in tundra plants. Arct Antarct Alp Res. 1993 Nov 1;25(4):391–402.
53. Calfapietra C, Peñuelas J, Niinemets Ü. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress. Trends Plant Sci. 2015 Feb 1;20(2):72–5. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2014.11.001 25476199
54. McDonnell MJ, Hahs AK. Adaptation and adaptedness of organisms to urban environments. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Sys. 2015 Dec 4;46:261–80.
55. Ash HJ, Gemmell RP, Bradshaw AD. The introduction of native plant species on industrial waste heaps: a test of immigration and other factors affecting primary succession. J Appl Ecol. 1994 Feb 1:74–84.
56. Cooke JA, Johnson MS. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: A review of theory and practice. Environmental Reviews. 2002 Mar 1;10(1):41–71.
57. Whiting SN, Reeves RD, Richards D, Johnson MS, Cooke JA, Malaisse F, et al. Research priorities for conservation of metallophyte biodiversity and their potential for restoration and site remediation. Restor Ecol. 2004 Mar 1;12(1):106–16.
58. Allison SK. When is a restoration successful? Results from a 45-year-old tallgrass prairie restoration. Ecological Restoration. 2002 Mar 1;20(1):10–7.
59. Bowles M, Jones M. Testing the efficacy of species richness and floristic quality assessment of quality, temporal change, and fire effects in tallgrass prairie natural areas. Natural Areas Journal. 2006 Jan;26(1):17–31.
60. Hansen MJ, Gibson DJ. Use of multiple criteria in an ecological assessment of a prairie restoration chronosequence. Appl Veg Sci. 2014 Jan;17(1):63–73.
61. Spyreas G. Floristic Quality Assessment: a critique, a defense, and a primer. Ecosphere. 2019 Aug;10(8):e02825.
62. Baskin JM, Baskin CC. Vegetation of limestone and dolomite glades in the Ozarks and Midwest regions of the United States. Ann Mo Bot Gar. 2000 Apr 1:286–94.
63. Corbett E, Anderson RC. Landscape analysis of Illinois and Wisconsin remnant prairies. J Torrey Bot Soc. 2006 Apr;133(2):267–80.
64. Molano-Flores B, Phillippe LR, Marcum PB, Carroll-Cunningham C, Ellis JL, Busemeyer DT, et al. A floristic inventory and vegetation survey of three dolomite prairies in northeastern Illinois. Castanea. 2015 Sep;80(3):153–70.