An assessment of the utility and repeatability of the renal resistive index in horses


Autoři: Natalia Siwinska aff001;  Agnieszka Zak aff001;  Malwina Slowikowska aff001;  Barbara Szczepankiewicz aff001;  Artur Niedzwiedz aff001;  Urszula Paslawska aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Internal Medicine and Clinic of Diseases of Horses, Dogs and Cats, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Pl. Grunwaldzki, Wroclaw, Poland aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226941

Souhrn

The aim of this study was to establish the value of the renal resistive index (RI) of intrarenal arteries in healthy warmblood non-racing horses of different ages to assess the influence of physiologic factors and repeatability of measurement. The kidney ultrasonography examination was performed in three age groups: 15 foals, 15 adults and 15 elderly horses. The procedure was performed in unsedated standing animals. RI values were measured using pulsed-wave Doppler at the medial part of each kidney in the intrarenal arteries. To evaluate repeatability, all measurements were repeated two hours after the first examination. Statistical analysis of the relationship between groups was carried out using Fisher’s test. The relationship between the RI value and the physiological parameters was evaluated using linear regression. Repeatability of measurements was determined based on the Bland-Altman plot. The mean RI value in the studied horses was 0.48 ± 0.05 in the left kidney and 0.49 ± 0.05 in the right kidney. There were no statistically significant differences between the RI values in foals and adult horses. The elderly horses had a significantly higher RI value. Pulse pressure was the only physiological parameter affecting the RI value. The repeatability coefficient was 0.089 for the right kidney and 0.09 for the left kidney. The presented result suggest that elderly healthy horses have higher RI values than younger animals, which should be taken into account in clinical practice. The arterial pulse pressure should also be considered when interpreting RI values. The measurements have high repeatability, but in the authors’ opinion, this procedure is time consuming and requires experience.

Klíčová slova:

Arteries – Blood pressure – Elderly – Geriatrics – Horses – Kidneys – Renal arteries – Ultrasound imaging


Zdroje

1. Tetsuka K, Hoshi T, Sumiya E, Kitakoji H, Yada Y, Hongo F, et al. The influence of aging on renal blood flow in human beings. J Med Ultrasonics. 2003;30: 247–251.

2. Rawashadeh YF, Horlyck A, Mortensen J, Frokiaer J. Short- and long-term repeatability of intrarenal resistive index in the pig. Investigative Radiology. 2001;36: 341–346. doi: 10.1097/00004424-200106000-00007 11410755

3. Lin GJ, Cher TW. Renal vascular resistance in normal children–a color Doppler study. Pediatr Nephrol. 1997;11: 182–185. doi: 10.1007/s004670050255 9090659

4. Platt JF, Rubin JM, Ellis JH. Acute renal obstruction: evaluation with intrarenal duplex Doppler and conventional US. Radiology. 1993;186: 685–688. doi: 10.1148/radiology.186.3.8430174 8430174

5. Chang YJ, Chan IP, Cheng FP, Wang WS, Liu PC, Lin SL. Relationship between age, plasma renin activity and renal resistive index in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51: 335–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2010.01669.x 20469558

6. Beloncle F, Rousseau N, Hamel JF, Donzeau A, Foucher AL, Custaud MA, et al. Determinants of Doppler-based renal resistive index in patients with septic shock: impact of hemodynamic parameters, acute kidney injury and predisposing factors. Ann. Intensive Care 2019; 9:51. doi: 10.1186/s13613-019-0525-8 31020427

7. Bellos I, Pergialiotis V, Kontzoglou K. Renal resistive index as predictor of acute kidney injury after major surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Critical Care 2019;50: 36–43 doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.11.001 30471559

8. Lin ZY, Wang LY, Yu ML, Dai CY, Chen SC, Chuang WL, et al. Influence of age on intrarenal resistive index measurement in normal subjects. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28: 230–232. doi: 10.1007/s00261-002-0024-4 12592470

9. Hoffmann KL, Wood AKW, Kirby AC. Use of Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate renal arterial blood flow in horses. AJVR. 1997;58: 697–701.

10. Macri F, Pugliese M, Di Pietro S, Coco MA, Liotta L, Niutta PP, et al. Doppler ultrasonographic estimation of renal resistive index in horse: comparison between left and right kidney. J Equine Vet Scien. 2015;35: 111–115.

11. Hoffmann KL, Wood AKW, McCarthy PH. Sonographic-anatomic correlation and imaging protocol for the kidneys of horses. Am J Vet Res. 1995;56: 1403–1412. 8585648

12. Tipisca V, Murino C, Cortese L, Mennonna G, Auletta L, Vulpe V, et al. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2015. doi: 10.1177/1098612X15587573 26012866

13. Reef VB, Lalezari K, De Boo J, van der Belt AJ, Spencer PA, Dik KJ. Pulsed-wave Doppler evaluation of intracardiac blood flow in 30 clinically normal Standardbred horses. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50: 75–83. 2919832

14. Edinger H, Sendlhofer A. The use of Doppler ultrasound for the arteries of the distal extremities of the horse. Tierarztl Prax Suppl. 1993; 45–46. 8172775

15. Fraser AF, Keith NW, Hastie H. Summarised observations on the ultrasonic detection of pregnancy and foetal life in the mare. Vet Rec. 1973;93: 20–21.

16. Mikkonen RH, Kreula JM, Virkkunen PJ. Peak systolic velocity, resistive index and pulsatility index: Variations in measuring a pre-recorded videotape. Acta Radiol. 1997;38: 598–602. doi: 10.1080/02841859709174392 9240683

17. Morrow KL, Salman MD, Lappin MR, Wrigley R. Comparision of the resistive index to clinical parameters in dogs with renal disease. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1996;37: 193–199.

18. Park I, Lee H, Kim J, Nam S, Choi R, Oh K, et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of renal dimension and resistive index in clinically healthy Korean domestic short-hair cats. J Vet Sci. 2008;9: 415–419. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2008.9.4.415 19043318

19. Nelson TR, Pretorius DH. The Doppler signal: where does it come from and what does it mean? Am J Roentgen. 1988;151: 434–447.

20. Rivers BJ, Walter PA, O’Brien TD, Polzin DJ. Dupplex Doppler estimation of Pourcelot resistive index in arcuate arteries of sedated normal cats. J Vet Intern Med. 1996;10: 28–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1996.tb02020.x 8965265

21. Santarosa BP, Ferreira DLO, Belotta AF, Dias A, Mamprim MJ, Gonçalves RC. B-Mode and pulsed Doppler sonography of kidney in healthy sheep according to age. Pes Vet Bras. 2016;36: 545–550.

22. Viazzi F, Leoncini G, Derchi LE, Pontremoli R. Ultrasound Doppler renal resistive index: a useful tool for the management of the hypertensive patient. J Hypertens. 2014;32: 149–153. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328365b29c 24172238

23. Ansarin K, Bavil AS, Ghabili K, Shoja MM, Khosroshahi HT, Hajipour B, et al. Are Doppler ultrasonography parameters symmetric between the right and left kidney? Int J Gen Med. 2010;3: 371–373. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S14119 21189833

24. Novellas R, Espada Y, Ruiz De Gopegui R. Doppler ultrasonographic estimation of renal and ocular resistive and pulsatility indices in normal dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007;48: 69–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00206.x 17236363

25. Novellas R, De Gopegui R, Espada Y. Effects of sedation with midazolam and butorphanol on resistive and pulsatility indices in healthy dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007;48: 276–280. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00242.x 17508517

26. Bude RO, DiPietro MA, Platt JF, Rubin JM, Miesowicz S, Lundquist C. Age dependency of the renal resistive index in healthy children. Radiology. 1992;184: 469–473. doi: 10.1148/radiology.184.2.1620850 1620850

27. Terry JD, Rysavy JA, Frick MP. Intrarenal Doppler: characteristics of aging kidneys. J Ultrasound Med. 1992;11: 647–651. doi: 10.7863/jum.1992.11.12.647 1494196

28. Ponte B, Pruijm M, Ackermann D, Vuistiner P, Eisenberger U, Guessous I, et al. Reference values and factors associated with renal resistive index in a family-based population study. Hypertension. 2014;63: 136–142. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02321 24126174

29. Pontremoli R, Viazzi F, Martinoli C, Ravera M, Nicolella C, Berruti V, et al. Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14: 360–365. doi: 10.1093/ndt/14.2.360 10069189

30. O’Neill WC. Renal resistive index. A case of mistaken identity. Hypertension. 2014;64: 915–917. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04183 25156171

31. Cauwenberghs N, Kuznetsova T. Determinants and prognostic significance of the renal resistive index. Pulse. 2016. doi: 10.1159/000442445 27195237

32. Platt JF. Duplex Doppler evaluation of native kidney dysfunction: obstructive and non-obstructive disease. Am J Roentgen. 1992;158: 1035–1042.

33. Murphy ME, Tublin ME. Understanding the Doppler RI: Impact of renal arterial distensibility on the RI in a hydronephrotic ex vivo rabbit kidney model. J Ultrasound Med. 2000;19: 303–314. 10811403

34. Genkins SM, Sanfilippo FP, Carroll BA. Duplex Doppler sonography of renal transplants: lack of sensitivity and specificity in establishing pathologic diagnosis. Am J Roentgenol. 1989;152: 535–539.

35. Mastorakou I, Lindsell DR, Piepoli M, Adamopoulos S, Ledingham JG. Pulsatility and resistance indices in intrarenal arteries of normal adults. Abdom Imaging. 1994;19: 369–373. doi: 10.1007/bf00198202 8075568

36. Draper AC, Bowen IM, Hallowell GD. Reference ranges and reliability of transabdominal ultrasonographic renal dimensions in thoroughbred horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;53: 336–341. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2011.01902.x 22168823

37. Habershon-Butcher J, Bowen M, Hallowell G. Validation of a novel translumbar ultrasound technique for measuring renal dimensions in horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2014;55: 323–330. doi: 10.1111/vru.12112 24118511


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 12