Exogenous melatonin reduces the inhibitory effect of osmotic stress on photosynthesis in soybean

Autoři: Mingcong Zhang aff001;  Songyu He aff001;  Yingce Zhan aff001;  Bin Qin aff001;  Xijun Jin;  Mengxue Wang aff001;  Yuxian Zhang aff001;  Guohua Hu aff001;  Zhanlin Teng aff002;  Yaokun Wu aff003
Působiště autorů: College of Agronomy, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, P.R. China aff001;  Huanan Agrotechnical Extension Center, Jiamusi, P.R. China aff002;  Daqing Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Daqing, P.R. China aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226542


Understanding the relationship between exogenous melatonin and water deficit stress is crucial for achieving high yields and alleviating the effects of water deficit stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) plants in agriculture. This study investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin on soybean photosynthetic capacity under water deficit stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. We conducted a potting experiment in 2018 using the soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivar Suinong 26. We identified the impacts of a concentration of PEG 6000 simulating drought (15%, w/v) and an appropriate melatonin concentration (100 μmol/L) on the growth of soybean seedlings and flowering stages in a preliminary test. We applied exogenous melatonin by foliar spraying and root application to determine the effects on leaf photosynthesis during water deficit stress. Our results indicated that 15% PEG 6000 had an obvious inhibitory effect on the growth of soybean seedlings and flowering stages, causing oxidative stress and damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2·-) accumulation and potentially reducing air exchange parameters and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency. The application of exogenous melatonin significantly relieved the inhibitory effects of PEG 6000 stress on seedlings and flowering growth, and gas exchange parameters, potentially improved PSII efficiency, improved the leaf area index (LAI) and the accumulation of dry matter, slowed down oxidative stress and damage to leaves by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT), reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and ultimately improved soybean yield. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that application of exogenous melatonin at the seedlings and flowering stages of soybean is effective in alleviating plant damage caused by water deficit stress and improving the drought resistance of soybean plants. In addition, the results showed that application of exogenous melatonin by root is superior to foliar spraying.

Klíčová slova:

Antioxidants – Leaves – Melatonin – Photosynthesis – Plant resistance to abiotic stress – Seedlings – Soybean – Water resources


1. Jin ZN, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB. Lobell DB. Increasing drought and diminishing benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean yields across the US Midwest. Global change biology. 2018; 24: e522–e533. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13946 29110424

2. Gray SB, Dermody O, Klein SP, Locke AM, McGrath JM, Paul RE. Intensifying drought eliminates the expected benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean. Nature Plants. 2016; 2:16132. https://doi.org/10.1038/NPLANTS.2016.132 27595230

3. Meng JF, Xu TF, Wang ZZ, Fang YL, Xi ZM, Zhang ZW. The ameliorative effects of exogenous melatonin on grape cuttings under water-deficient stress: antioxidant metabolites, leaf anatomy, and chloroplast morphology. Journal of Pineal Research. 2014; 57: 200–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12159 25039750

4. Golldack D, Li C, Mohan H, Probst N. Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: Unra- veling the signaling networks. Front in Plant Sci. 2014; 5: 151. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00151

5. Graham N, Amna M, Christine HF. The Roles of Reactive Oxygen Metabolism in Drought: Not So Cut and Dried. Plant Physiology. 2014; 164: 1636–1648. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.233478 24715539

6. Xu LX, Yu JJ, Han LB, Huang B. Photosynthetic enzyme activities and gene expression associated with drought tolerance and post-drought recovery in Kentucky bluegrass. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2013; 89: 28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.12.001

7. Cominelli E, Conti L, Tonelli C, Galbiati M. Challenges and perspectives to improve crop drought and salinity tolerance. New Biotechnology. 2013; 4: 355–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2012.11.001

8. Zhang C, Zhan DX, Luo HH, Zhang YL, Zhang WF. Photorespiration and photoinhibition in the bracts of cotton under water stress. Photosynthetica. 2016; 1: 12–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-015-0139-9

9. Bollig C, Feller U. Impacts of drought stress on water relations and carbon assimilation in grassland species at different altitudes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2014; 188: 212–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.02.034

10. Osakabe Y, Osakabe K, Shinozaki K, Tran LSP. Response of plants to water stress. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2014; 5: 86. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00086 24659993

11. De Souza TC, Magalhães PC, de Castro EM, de Albuquerque PEP, Marabesi MA. The influence of ABA on water relation, photosynthesis parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence under drought conditions in two maize hybrids with contrasting drought resistance. Acta Physiol Plant. 2013; 35:515–527. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-012-1093-9

12. Wu YY, Tian YD, Liu LX, Xing XH, Jiang HQ, Xing H, et al. Effects of Triadimefon on physiological characteristics and yield of soybean under drought and rewatering at flowering stage. Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2013; 27: 1749–1755.

13. Xing XH, Jiang HQ, Zhou Q, Xing H, Jiang H, Wang S. Improved drought tolerance by early IAA- and ABA-dependent H2O2 accumulation induced by a-naphthaleneacetic acid in soybean plants. Plant Growth Regulation. 2016; 3: 303–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-016-0167-x

14. Wang W, Wang C, Pan D, Zhang Y, Luo B, Ji J. Effects of drought stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence images of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 2018; 11: 196–201.

15. Wang X, Khodadadi E, Fakheri B, Komatsu S. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses. Journal of Proteomics. 2017; 162: 62–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.04.012 28435105

16. Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Kofidis G, Bosabalidis A, Nastou A. Water stress affects leaf anatomy, gas exchange, water relations and growth of two avocado cultivars. Scientia horticulturae. 2002; 95: 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(02)00016-X

17. Mathobo R, Marais D, Steyn JM. The effect of drought stress on yield, leaf gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Agricultural Water Management. 2017; 180: 118–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.005

18. Mo C, Kim MS, Kim G, Cheong EJ, Yang J, Lim J. Detecting Drought Stress in Soybean Plants Using Hyperspectral Fluorescence Imaging. Journal of Biosystems Engineering. 2015; 40: 335–344.

19. Yao CJ, Guo SM, Ma YC, Lai XL, Yang XH. Effect of drought stress on characteristics of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of four species of Cassia. Pratacultural Science. 2017; 34: 1880–1888. https://doi.org/10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0588

20. Li YB, Song H, Zhou L, Xu Z, Zhou G. Tracking chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of drought and rewatering across the entire leaf lifespan in a maize field. Agricultural Water Management. 2019; 211: 190–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.09.050

21. Wu X L, Liang H Y, Yang F, Liu WG, She Y.H, Yang WY. Comprehensive evaluation and screening identification indexes of shade tolerance at seedling in soybean. Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2015; 48: 2497–2507. https://doi.org/10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.13.002

22. Gao W, Zhang Y, Feng Z, Bai Q, He J, Wang Y. Effects of Melatonin on Antioxidant Capacity in Naked Oat Seedlings under Drought Stress. Molecules. 2018; 23, 1580. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071580

23. Mether, Shivakrishna P, Reddy KA, Rao DM. Effect of PEG-6000 imposed drought stress on RNA content, relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll content in peanut leaves and roots. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018; 25:285–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.04.008 29472779

24. Emmerich WE, Hardegree SP. Polyethylene glycol solution contact effects on seed germinat- ion. Agronomy Journal. 1990; 6: 1103–1107. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1990.00021962008200060015x

25. He SY, Qin B, Zhang MC, Jin XJ, Wang MX, Ren CY, Zhang YX. Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Antioxidant Properties and Yield of Soybean Seedling Under Water Stress. Soybean Science, 2019, 38: 407–412. https://doi.org/10.11861/j.issn.1000-9841.2019.03.0407

26. Arnao MB, Hernández RJ. Functions of melatonin in plants: a review. Journal of Pineal Research. 2015; 2: 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12253

27. Dubbels R, Reiter RJ, Klenke E, Goebel A, Schnakenberg E, Ehlers C, et al. Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioim-munoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of pineal research, 1995; 18, 28–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.1995.tb00136.x 7776176

28. Arnao MB. Phytomelatonin: discovery, content, and role in plants. Advances in Botany. 2014; 2: 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1155/2014/815769

29. Murch SJ, KrishnaRaj S, Saxena P. Tryptophan is a precursor for melatonin and serotonin biosynthesis in vitro regenerated St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatumL. cv. Anthos) plants. Plant Cell Reports. 2000; 19: 698–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002990000206 30754808

30. Manchester LC, Tan DX, Reiter RJ, Park W, Monis K, Qi W. High levels of melatonin in the seeds of edible plants: Possible function in germ tissue protection. Life Sciences. 2000; 25: 3023–3029. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00896-1

31. Wang P, Sun X, Li C, Wei ZW, Liang D, Ma FW. Long-term exogenous application of melatonin delays drought-induced leaf senescence in apple. Journal of Pineal Research. 2013; 54: 292–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12017 23106234

32. Chen YE, Mao JJ, Sun LQ, Huang B, Ding CB, Gu Y, et al. Exogenous melatonin enhances salt stress tolerance in maize seedlings by improving antioxidant and photosynthetic capacity. Physiologia Plantarum. 2018; 164: 349–363. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12737 29633289

33. Turk H, Erdal S, Genisel M, Atici O, Demir Y, Yanmis D. The regulatory effect of melatonin on physiological, biochemical and molecular parameters in cold-stressed wheat seedling. Plant Growth Regulation. 2014; 74: 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-014-9905-0

34. Wang LY, Liu JL, Wang WX, Sun Y. Exogenous melatonin improves growth and photosynthetic capacity of cucumber under salinity-induced stress. Photosynthetica. 2016; 54: 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-015-0140-3

35. Zhang N, Zhao B, Zhang HJ, Weeda S, Yang C, Yang ZC, et al. Melatonin promotes water-stress tolerance, lateral root formation, and seed germination in cucumber. Journal of Pineal Research. 2013; 54:15–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2012.01015.x 22747917

36. Yang XL, Xu H, Li D, Gao X, Li TL, Wang R. Effect of melatonin priming on photosynthetic capacity of tomato leaves under low-temperature stress. Photosynthetica. 2018; 56: 884–892. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-017-0748-6

37. Arnao M B, Hernàndez RJ. Protective effect of melatonin against chlorophyll degradation during the senescence of barley leaves. Journal of Pineal Research. 2009; 46: 58–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2008.00625.x 18691358

38. Jiang XW, Li HQ, Song XY. Seed priming with melatonin effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Pak. J. Bot. 2006; 48: 1345–1352.

39. Liang C, Zheng G, Li W, Wang Y, Hu B, Wang H, et al. Melatonin delays leaf senescence and enhances salt stress tolerance in rice. Journal of Pineal Research. 2015; 59: 91–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12243 25912474

40. Beauchamp CO, Fridovich I. Isozymes of superoxide dismutase from wheat germ. Biochim-ica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Protein Structure. 1973; 317: 50–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2795(73)90198-0

41. Rao M V, Paliyath G, Ormrod DP. Ultraviolet-B- and Ozone-Induced Biochemical Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1996; 10: 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.110.1.125

42. Hamurcu M, Sekmen AH, Turkan I, Gezgin S, Demiral T, Bell RW. Induced anti-oxidant activity in soybean alleviates oxidative stress under moderate boron toxicity. Plant Growth Regulation. 2013; 70: 217–226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9793-8

43. Draper HH, Squires EJ, Mahmoodi H, Wu J, Agarwal S, Hadley M. A comparative evaluation of thiobarbituric acid methods for the determination of malondialdehyde in biological materials. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 1993; 4: 353–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(93)90035-S

44. Ke D, Sun G, Wang Z. Effects of superoxide radicals on ACC synthase activity in chilling-stressed etiolated mungbean seedlings. Plant Growth Regulation. 2007; 51: 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-006-9150-2

45. Awasthi JP, Saha B, Regon P, Sahoo S, Chowra U, Pradhan A, et al. Morphophysiological analysis of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in rice varieties of North East India. PLoS ONE. 2017, 12: e0176357. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176357 28448589

46. Baker NR. Chlorophyll fluorescence: A probe of photosynthesis in vivo. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2008; 59: 89–113. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092759 18444897

47. Liu Z, Cai JS, Li JJ, Lu GY, Li CS, Fu GP, et al. Exogenous application of a low concentration of melatonin enhances salt tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2018; 17: 328–335. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030709

48. Taïbi K, Taïbi F, Abderrahim LA, Ennajah A, Belkhodja M, Mulet JM. Effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence systems in Phaseolus vulgaris L. South African Journal of Botany. 2016; 105: 306–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2016.03.011

49. Hu W, Tian SB, Di Q, Duan SH, Dai K. Effects of exogenous calcium on mesophyll cell ultrastructure, gas exchange, and photosystem II in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Linn.) under drought stress. Photosynthetica. 2018; 56: 1204–1211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-018-0822-8

50. Harb A, Krishnan A, Ambavaram MM, Pereira A. Molecular and Physiological Analysis of Drought Stress in Arabidopsis Reveals Early Responses Leading to Acclimation in Plant Growth. Plant Physiology. 2010; 154: 1254–1271. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.110.161752 20807999

51. Hamayun M, Khan SA, Shinwari ZK, Khan AL, Ahmad N, Lee IJ. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced drought stress on physio-hormonal attributes of soybean. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2010; 42: 977–986.

52. Sergiev I, Todorova D, Shopova E, Jankauskiene J, Jankovska-Bortkevič E, Jurkonienė S. Exogenous auxin type compounds amend PEG-induced physiological responses of pea plants. Scientia Horticulturae. 2019; 248: 200–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.01.015

53. Tian F, Jia T, Yu B. Physiological regulation of seed soaking with soybean isoflavones on drought tolerance of Glycine max and Glycine soja. Plant Growth Regulation. 2014; 74: 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-014-9914-z

54. Salvatori E, Fusaro L, Manes F. Chlorophyll fluorescence for phenotyping drought-stressed trees in a mixed deciduous forest. Annali di Botanica. 2016; 6: 39–49. https://doi.org/10.4462/annbotrm-13263

55. Guo S J, Yang K M, Huo J, Zhou YH, Wang YP, Li GQ. Influence of drought on leaf photosynthetic capacity and root growth of soybeans at grain filling stage. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. 2015; 26: 1419–1425 26571660

56. Ren SX, Jiang GL, Rutto L. Melatonin priming enhances symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean, Glycine max L. Journal of Biotech Research. 2019; 10: 136–144. http://www.btsjournals.com/assets/2019v10p136-144.pdf

57. Dong Z. Soybean yield physiology. Beijing: China Agriculture Press. 2012; 75–82.

58. Kaiser W. M. Effects of water deficit on photosynthetic capacity. Physiologia Plantarum. 1987; 71: 142–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1987.tb04631.x

59. Wallin G, Skarby L. The influence of ozone on the stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. Exposed to soil moisture deficit. Trees. 1992; 6: 128–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00202428

60. Escalona JM, Flexas J, Medrano H. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis under water stress in field-grown grapevines. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1999; 26: 421–433. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP99019

61. Flexas J, Ribas-Carbó M, Bota J, Galmés J, Henkle M, Martínez-Cañellas S, et al. Decreased Rubisco activity during water stress is not induced by decreased relative water content but related to conditions of low stomatal conductance and chloroplast CO2 concentration. New Phytologist. 2006; 172: 73–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01794.x 16945090

62. Farquhar G D, Sharkey T D. Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 1982; 33: 317–345. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533

63. Sharkey TD. Photosynthesis in intact leaves of C3 plants: Physics, physiology and rate limitations. The Botanical Review. 1985; 51: 53–105. https://doi.org/10.2307/4354049

64. Fracheboud Y, & Leipner J. The Application of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Study Light, Temperature, and Drought Stress. Practical Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Plant Biology. 2003; 125–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0415-3-4

65. Li RH, Guo PG, Michael B, Stefania G, Salvatore C. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Parameters as Indicators of Drought Tolerance in Barley. Agricultural Sciences in China. 2006; 5: 751–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(06)60120-X

66. García-Sánchez F, Syvertsen JP, Gimeno V, Botía P, Perez-Perez JG. Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water-use efficiency. Physiologia Plantarum, 2007; 130, 532–542. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2007.00925.x

67. Zhou S X, Medlyn BE and Prentice IC. Long-term water stress leads to acclimation of drought sensitivity of photosynthetic capacity in xeric but not riparian Eucalyptus species. Annals of Botany. 2015; 117: 133–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcv161 26493470

68. Oukarroum A, El Madidi S, Schansker G, Strasser RJ. Probing the responses of barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) by chlorophyll a fluorescence OLKJIP under drought stress and re-watering. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2007; 60: 438–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.01.002

69. Ivanov B, & Edwards G. Influence of ascorbate and the Mehler peroxidase reaction on non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in maize mesophyll chloroplasts. Planta. 2000; 210: 765–774. https://doi.org/10.2307/23385907 10805448

70. Fahad Shah, Hussain Saddam, Saud Shah, Hassan S, Ihsan Z, Shah AN, et al. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016; 7: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01250

71. Akter N, Islam MR, Karim MA, Hossain T. Alleviation of drought stress in maize by exogenous application of gibberellic acid and cytokinin. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 2014; 17: 41–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-013-0117-3

72. Zhang L, Gao M, Zhang L, Li B, Han M, Alva AK, et al. Role of exogenous glycine betaine and humic acid in mitigating drought stress-induced adverse effects in Malus robust a seedling. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2013; 37: 920–929. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1212-21

73. Bai LP, Sui FG, Ge TD, Sun ZH, Lu YY, Zhou GS. Effect of Soil Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Membrane Permeability and Enzymatic Antioxidant System of Maize. Pedosphere. 2006; 16: 326–332. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(06)60059-3

74. Gharibi S, Tabatabaei BES, Saeidi G, Goli SAH. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2016; 178: 796–809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1909-3 26541161

75. Hou Q, Ufer G, & Bartels D. Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2016; 39: 1029–1048. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12666

76. Devi MA, & Giridhar P. Variations in Physiological Response, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, Proline and Isoflavones Content in Soybean Varieties Subjected to Drought Stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2015; 85: 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-013-0244-0

77. Campos CN, Ávila RG, de Souza KRD, Azevedo LM, Alves JD. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress and promotes drought tolerance in young Coffea arabica L. plants. Agricultural Water Management. 2019; 211: 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.09.025

78. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Burkhardt S, Manchester LC. Melatonin in plants. Nutrition Reviews. 2001; 59: 286–290. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb07018.x 11570431

79. Zhang N, Zhang H, Yang R, Huang Y, Guo Y. Advances in Melatonin and Its Functions in Plants. Agricul- tural Science & Technology. 2012; 13: 1833–1837. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-4229-B.2012.09.006

80. Wei W, Li QT, Chu YN, Reiter RJ, Yu XM, Zhu DH, et al. Melatonin enhances plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance in soybean plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2015; 66: 695–707. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru392 25297548

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12