Malaria screening at the workplace in Cameroon

Autoři: Christian Nchetnkou Mbohou aff001;  Loick Pradel Kojom Foko aff001;  Hervé Nyabeyeu Nyabeyeu aff001;  Calvin Tonga aff001;  Larissa Kouodjip Nono aff002;  Lafortune Kangam aff002;  Godlove Wepnje Bunda aff003;  Isabelle Matip Mbou aff002;  Etoile Odette Ngo Hondt aff001;  Alex Joel Koumbo Mbe aff001;  Nicolas Policarpe Nolla aff004;  Leopold Gustave Lehman aff001
Působiště autorů: Parasitology and Entomology Research Unit, Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon aff001;  Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Douala, Cameroon aff002;  Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon aff003;  Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon aff004;  Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


Malaria remains a major health problem in Cameroon; It accounts for 38% of consultations, 24% of deaths and 36.8% of absenteeism in the country. The negative economic impact of malaria has encouraged a new control approach targeting companies. In this regard, a cross sectional study was conducted from February 2015 to June 2017 in 14 companies in the town of Douala. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, control practices of employees and identifying associated factors with malaria. A total of 2705 workers were interviewed and systematically screened for malaria using LED fluorescence microscopy (CyScope®). All positive cases were given a malaria treatment. The prevalence of malaria and asymptomatic malaria was 30.1% and 28.9% respectively; asymptomatic malaria accounted for 95.7% of all positive diagnostic test. Malaria infection was significantly higher in employees aged 36–60 years (30.5%) and having completed primary studies (36%). ITNs ownership and utilization were 86.36% and 77.23% respectively. The risk for malaria infection has significantly decreased with age and educational level while the employees’ level of education and size of households were significantly associated with the regular utilization of ITNs. This is the first study assessing malaria prevalence and risk factors in workplace in Cameroon and using a novel diagnostic tool. This study outlines a high prevalence of malaria infection, especially asymptomatic carriage, high rates of ITNs ownership and utilization, as well as the influence of level of education, age and household size as associated factors. Active case detection of asymptomatic carriers through systematic screening of employees at workplace and their treatment is feasible with the Cyscope microscope and could be a good complement to ongoing control strategies.

Klíčová slova:

Cameroon – Employment – Fluorescence microscopy – Insecticides – Malaria – Malarial parasites – Parasitic diseases – Plasmodium


1. WHO. World malaria report 2018. 20, avenue Appia CH-1211 Geneva 27; 2018 p. 240p

2. Lehman LG, Kojom FLP, Tonga C, Nyabeyeu NH, Eboumbou EC, Kouodjip NL, et al. Epidemiology of malaria using LED fluorescence microscopy among schoolchildren in Douala, Cameroon. Int J Trop Dis Health. 2018; 29(1): 1–13. doi: 10.9734/IJTDH/2018/38804

3. Kimbi HK, Awah NW, Ndamukong KJ, Mbuh JV. Malaria infection and its consequences in school children. East Afr Med J. 2005; 82: 92–97. doi: 10.4314/eamj.v82i2.9261 16122098

4. Aheisibwe AR. The effect of malaria on agricultural production in Uganda. Master degree of Arts in economics in Makerere University. 2011 1–31.

5. Leighton C, Foster R. Economic impacts of malaria in Kenya and Nigeria. Abt Associates Health financing and sustainability project. 1993 PDF Version. 98p (In French).

6. RBM. Investissement des entreprises dans la lutte contre le paludisme: Retombées économiques et protection de la main d’œuvre en Afrique. 2011; 6, 58 p (In French).

7. Koylu Z, Dogan N. The struggle against malaria in the Ottoman Empire during World war 1 and the legal regulations made to this end. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2010;34(3):209–215 20954126

8. Moonasar D, Tej NP, Kruger S, Mabuza A, Rasiswi ES, Benson FG, et al. Malaria control in South Africa 2000–2010: beyond MDG6. Malar J. 2012; 11:294 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-294 22913727

9. Satimai W, Prayuth S, Saowanit V, Amnat K, Surasak S, Thanapon P, et al. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. II: responses to mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy among falciparum malaria patients in provinces bordering Cambodia. Malar J. 2012; 11:300 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-300 22929621

10. Bowen HL. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon. Malar J. 2013; 12:36. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-36 23351674

11. Kaufman MR, Datius R, Hannah K, Macha J. My children and I will no longer suffer from malaria”: a qualitative study of the acceptance and rejection of indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria in Tanzania. Malar J. 2012; 11:220 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-220 22747610

12. Besnard P, Foumane V, Foucher JF, Beliaud F, Costa J, Monnot N, et al. Impact de la création d’un laboratoire de diagnostic parasitologique du paludisme sur le diagnostic et le coût du paludisme dans une entreprise: une expérience angolaise. Med Trop. 2006; 66 (3): 269–272.

13. Kimbi HK, Ajeagah HU, Keka FC, Lum E, Nyabeyeu NH, Tonga CF, et al. Asymptomatic malaria in school children and evaluation of the performance characteristics of the Partec Cyscope® in the Mount Cameroon Region. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2012; 3:153. doi: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000153

14. Ndamukong NJL, Kimbi HK, Sumbele NIU, Bertek SC, Kangam L, Kouodjip NL, et al. Comparison of the Partec CyScope® rapid diagnostic test with light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in rural Tole, Southwest Cameroon. British J Med Med Res. 2015; 8(7):623–633. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17927

15. INS. Recensement Général des entreprises en 2009. 2010; Version française pdf

16. Antonio-Nkondjio C, Talom BD, Tagne FR, Fossog TB, Ndo C., Lehman GL, et al. High mosquito burden and malaria transmission in a district of the city of Douala, Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis. 2012; 12: 275. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-275 23106909

17. MSP. Enquête post campagne sur l’utilisation des moustiquaires imprégnées d’insecticide a longue durée d’action. 2013; Version PDF 109p (In French).

18. MSP. Cameroon. Health Sector Strategy 2001–2015. PDF English version 2009 09p.

19. Kim SK, Eriksson S, Kubista M, Kubista M, Nordén B. Interaction of 4’, 6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) with Poly[d (G-C)2] and Poly[d (G-m5C)2]: Evidence for major groove binding of a DNA probe. J Am Chem Soc. 1993; 115:3441–3447.

20. Eriksson S, Kim SK, Kubista M, Nordén B. Binding of 4’, 6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to at regions for an allosteric conformational change. Biochemical. 1993; 32:2987–2998.

21. Sumbele IUN, Kimbi HK, Ndamukong-Nyanga JL, Nweboh M, Achang-Kimbi JK, Lum E, et al. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: Cross sectional survey. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4): e0123549. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123549 25893500

22. Akono PN, Tcheugoue GRJ, Mbida JA, Tonga C, Lehman LG. Higher mosquito aggressiveness and malaria transmission following the distribution of alpha-cypermethrin impregnated mosquito nets in a district of Douala, Cameroon. Afr Entomol. 2018; 26(2):429–436.

23. Tchicaya AF, Wognin SB, Aka INA, Kouassi YMA, Guiza J, Bonny JS. Occupational and economic impacts of falciparum malaria in a private sector company in Ivory Coast. Arch Maladies Professionnelles Environ. 2014; 4: 406–411.

24. Rogier C. Paludisme de l’enfant en zone d’endémie: épidémiologie, acquisition d’une immunité et stratégies de lutte. Med Trop. 2003; 6:449–464

25. Nkoghe D, Akue JP, Gonzalez JP, Leroy EM. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic rural Gabonese populations. Malar J. 2011; 10:33 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-33 21306636

26. Nas FS, Yahaya A, Ali M. Prevalence of Malaria with Respect to Age, Gender and socio-economic status of fever related patients in Kano City, Nigeria. Greener J Epidemiol Public Health. 2017; 5 (5): 044–049.

27. Yibeltal A, Abeba M, Abebaw B, Bekalu K, Asmare T. Prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors among asymptomatic migrant laborers in West Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia. Res Rep Trop Med. 2018; 9:95–101 doi: 10.2147/RRTM.S165260 30050360

28. Doolan DL, Dobano C, Baird JK. Acquired immunity to malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009; 22:13–36. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00025-08 19136431

29. Harris I, Sharrock WW, Bain LM, Ann-Gray K, Bobogare A, Boaz L, et al. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting. Malar J. 2010;9: 254. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-254 20822506

30. Rovira-Vallbona E, Contreras-Mancilla JJ, Ramirez R, Guzman-Guzman M, Carrasco-Escobar Gg, Llanos-Cuentas A, et al. Predominance of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic infections characterizes the Plasmodium gametocyte reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(7):e0005674. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005674 28671944

31. Chen I, Clarke SE, Gosling R, Hamainza B, Killeen G, Magill A, et al. Asymptomatic malaria: a chronic and debilitating infection that should be treated. PLoS Med. 2016; 13(1): a1001942.

32. Nguitragool W, Mueller I, Kumpitak C, Saeseu T, Bantuchai S, Yorsaeng R, et al. Very high carriage of gametocytes in asymptomatic low-density Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections in western Thailand. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10(1):512. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2407-y 29065910

33. Ogunniyi A, Dairo MD, Dada-Adegbola H, Ajayi IO, Olayinka A, Oyibo WA, et al. Cost-effectiveness and validity assessment of Cyscope microscope, quantitative Buffy coat microscope, and rapid diagnostic kit for malaria diagnosis among clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria. Malar Res Treatment; 2016:

34. Hanafi-Bojd AA, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Eshraghian MR, Haghdoost AA, Abedi F, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria control in an endemic area of southern Iran. South-east Asian J Trop Med Pub Health. 2011;42(3): 491–501.

35. Kojom Foko LP, Lehman LG. Knowledge and beliefs towards malaria and associated factors among residents of the town of Douala, Cameroon. Arch Current Res Int. 2018; 14 (3): 1–17. http://10.9734/ACRI/2018/43009

36. Kunihya IZ, Samaila AB., Nassai I, Sarki A, Haruna MY. Prevalence of malaria infection among children attending specialist hospital Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Med Bio Sci Res. 2016; 8:136–142.

37. Masaninga F, Mukumbuta N, Ndhlovu K, Hamainza B, Wamulume P, Chanda E, Banda J, et al. Insecticide-treated nets mass distribution campaign: benefits and lessons in Zambia. Malaria Journal. 2018; 17:173. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2314-5 29690873

38. Nuwamanya S, Kansiime N, Aheebwe E, Akatukwasa C, Nabulo H, Turyakira E, et al. Utilization of long-lasting insecticide treated nets and parasitaemia at 6 months after a mass distribution exercise among households in Mbarara municipality, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Community Based Study. Malar Res Treatment. 2018; 2018:

39. Umaru ML, Uyaiabasi GN. Prevalence of malaria in patients attending the General Hospital Makarfi, Makarfi Kaduna- State, North-Western Nigeria. Am J Infect Dis Microbiol. 2015; 3(1):1–5.

40. Abdullahi K, Abubakar U, Adamu T, Daneji AI, Aliyu RU, Jiya NN, et al. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. Afr J Biochem. 2009; 8(24): 7101–7105.

41. Okonko IO, Adejuwon AO, Okerentungba PO, Frank-Peterside N. Plasmodium falciparum and HIV-1/2 coinfection among children presenting at the Out-Patient Clinic of Oni Memorial Children Hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Natr Sci. 2012; 10(8): 94–100.

42. Ndo C, Menze-Djantio B, Antonio-Nkondjio C. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon). Parasites & Vectors. 2011; 4:181

43. Talipouo A, Ngadjeu CS, Doumbe-Belisse P, Djamouko-Djonkam L, Sonhafouo-Chiana N, Kopya E, et al. Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers. Malar J. 2019; 18:167. doi: 10.1186/s12936-019-2799-6 31072344

44. MSP: Rapport final de l’Enquête Post campagne sur l’utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d’insecticide à Longue Durée d’Action 2016/2017. 2017version française PDF 120 pages (In French).

45. Makoge V, Ndzi E, Mbah G, Nkengazong L, Matsebo A, Moyou R. Status of malaria-related knowledge in school-going children in Cameroon. Arch Appl Sci Res. 2013, 5 (1):105–111.

46. Pulford J, Hetzel MW, Bryant M, Siba PM, Mueller I. Reported reasons for not using a mosquito net when one is available: a review of the published literature. Malar J. 2011;10: 83. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-83 21477376

47. Nuwamanya S, Kansiime N, Aheebwe E, Akatukwasa C, Nabulo H, Turyakira E, Bajunirwe F. Utilization of Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets and Parasitaemia at 6 Months after a Mass Distribution Exercise among Households in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Community Based Study. Malar Res Treat. 2018; 2018: 2018.

48. Njumkeng C, Apinjoh TO, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Amin ET, Tanue EA, Njua-Yafi C, et al. Coverage and usage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) within households: associated factors and effect on the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in the Mount Cameroon area. BMC Public Health. 2019; 19:1216. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7555-x 31481054

49. Minoo Kyalo G, Mutuku Kioko U. Factors Affecting Use of Insecticide Treated Nets by Children Under Five Years of Age in Kenya. Am J Health Res. 2018; 6 (4): 86–92. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20180604.15

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden