Pelagic tunicates at shallow hydrothermal vents of Kueishantao

Autoři: Pietro Franco aff001;  Hans-Uwe Dahms aff002;  Jiang-Shiou Hwang aff001
Působiště autorů: Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C aff001;  Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaoshiung, Taiwan aff002;  Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan aff003;  Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article


The composition and abundance of the major zooplankton taxon tunicates were analyzed in a multi-year study and correlated with environmental parameters in the area around the hydrothermal vent field of Kueishantao (Turtle Island) in Taiwan. This provided the first study about tunicates above hydrothermal vents worldwide. We chose seven different stations for sample collection. Sampling was carried out in September of 2009, 2014, and 2015 (autumn) and June 2015 (summer). A total of ten tunicate species were identified belonging to the classes Appendicularia and Thaliacea during the above periods throughout the area. Considering the limited diversity of these organisms worldwide (40 species are identified in each class), we affirm that Kueishantao, a shallow water hydrothermal vent field, with 10 species provided an unexpected biodiversity hot spot for pelagic tunicates. The sampling of the organisms in the surface waters provided higher abundances compared to oblique tows. Comparing results from three autumn seasons we found that temperature values correlated with changes in tunicate abundances. We discovered strong seasonal changes in pelagic tunicate abundances over the entire survey period, with the highest abundances observed during autumn.

Klíčová slova:

Hydrothermal vents – Islands – Salinity – Sea water – Surface water – Turtles – Zooplankton – Tunicata


1. Nakamura Y., 1998. Blooms of tunicates Oikopleura spp. and Dolioletta gegenbauri in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, during summer. Hydrobiologia. 385(1–3): 183–192.

2. Cristian A. V., Madin L. P., 2004. Zooplankton feeding ecology: clearance and ingestion rates of the salps Thalia democratica, Cycosalpa affinis, and Salpa cylindrica on naturally occurring particles in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. J. Plankton Res. 26(7): 827–833.

3. Alldredge A. L., 2005. The contribution of discarded appendicularian houses to the flux of particulate organic carbon from oceanic surface waters. In: Response of marine ecosystems to global change: ecological impact of appendicularians. Gorsky G., Youngbluth M. J., Deibel D. (eds). GB Scientific Publisher, Paris, 309–326.

4. Alldredge A. L., Madin L. P., 1982. Pelagic Tunicates Unique Herbivores in the Marine Plankton. Bioscience 32(8): 655–663.

5. Alldredge A. L., 1981. The Impact of appendicularian grazing on natural food concentrations in situ. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26 (2): 247–257.

6. Madin L. P., Purcell J. E., Miler C. B., 1997. Abundance and grazing effects of Cydosalpa bakeri in the subarctic Pacific. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 157:175–183.

7. Kannathasan A., Ezhilarasan A., Sampathkumar P., Balamurugan K., 2012. Seasonal distribution of pelagic tunicates with influence of the environmental parameters in the Parangipettai, southeast coast of India. Pelagic Research Library. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(6): 3714–3721.

8. Hwang J. S., Tu Y. Y., Tseng L. C., Fang L. S., Souissi S., Fang T. H. et al., 2004. Taxonomic composition and seasonal distribution of copepod assemblages from waters adjacent to nuclear power plant I and II in northern Taiwan. J. Mar. Sci. and Technol. 12 (5): 380–391.

9. Kâ S, Hwang J. S., 2011. Mesozooplankton distribution and composition on the northeastern coast of Taiwan during autumn: effects of the Kuroshio Current and hydrothermal vents. Zool. Stud. 50(2): 155–163.

10. Zhang J. B., Huang J. X., Lian G. S., 2003. Species composition and abundance distribution of Thaliacea in late autumn and early winter in the Nanwan Bay of Taiwan, China. Bull. Mar. Sci. 22 (6): 9–16.

11. Franco P, Chen HJ, Hwang JS. 2016. Taxonomic composition and seasonal distribution of pelagic tunicates in the waters off nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan in relation to environmental conditions. Zool. Stud. MS: 20151018.

12. Chiu C. L., Song S. R., Hsieh Y. C., Chen C.-X., 2010. Volcanic characteristics of Kueishantao in northeast Taiwan and their implications. Terr. Athmos. Ocean. Sci. 21(3): 575–585.

13. Chen C. T. A., Zeng Z., Kuo F. W., Yang T. F., Wang B. J. and Tu Y. Y., 2005. Tide-influenced acidic hydrothermal systems offshore NE Taiwan. Chem. Geology. 224: 69–81.

14. Alldredge A. L., 1976a. Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata). Limnol Oceanogr., 21, 14–23.

15. Gibson D. M., Paffenhöfer G. A., 2000. Feeding and growth rates of the doliolid, Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Plankton Res., 22 (8): 1485–1500.

16. Tew K. S., Lo W. T., 2005. Distribution of Thaliacea in SW Taiwan coastal waters in 1997, with special reference to Doliolum denticulatum, Thalia democratica, and T. orientalis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 292: 181–193.

17. Alldredge A. L., 1976b. Appendicularians. Scient. American 235: 95–102.

18. Franco P., Chen H. J., Liu G. X., 2013. Distribution and Abundance of Pelagic Tunicates in the North Yellow Sea. doi: 10.1007/s11802-014-2376-0 ISSN 1672-5182. J. Ocean Univ. China (Oceanic and Coastal Sea Research) 2014 13 (5): 782–790.

19. Xu Z. L., Zhang D., 2010. Yield-density model for determining optimal temperature and salinity for zooplankton: case studies with Appendicularia in the East China Sea. Bull.Mar. Sci. 86 (1): 149–164.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden