The association of parents’ behaviors related to salt with 24 h urinary sodium excretion of their children: A Spanish cross-sectional study

Autoři: Esther Cuadrado-Soto aff001;  África Peral-Suarez aff001;  Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez aff002;  Aránzazu Aparicio aff001;  Pedro Andrés aff002;  Rosa M. Ortega aff001;  Ana M. López-Sobaler aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal S/N, Madrid, Spain aff001;  Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain aff002;  UCM Research Group: VALORNUT-920030, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal S/N, Madrid, Spain aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article



Sodium intake is excessive among Spanish children, but the salt use behaviors of parents and children are unknown. This study aims to determine behaviors related to salt intake in both schoolchildren and parents and the relationship between parental behaviors and 24 h urinary sodium excretion (UNa-24h) in children.

Subjects and methods

A convenience sample was taken from a cross-sectional analysis. Parents completed a self-reported questionnaire about their behaviors related to salt, and their responses were compared with the UNa-24h of their own children. The median test was used to identify differences in UNa-24h according to behaviors. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors of parents and high sodium excretion in the children and the risk of children’s use of table salt, adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted by the covariates, were used to study the children’s salt preferences.


A total of 329 schoolchildren from different Spanish provinces were included in the study (mean age: 9.0 ± 1.2 years, 157 girls). The majority of families (parents mean age: 42.0 ± 5.2 years) reported adding salt to food during cooking (92%), and 59% of them never looked at the sodium content on food labels. However, none of these behaviors were related to UNa-24h (p > 0.05). The use of iodized salt (53%), the presence of a salt shaker on the table (6%), and the use of table salt by fathers (57%), mothers (52%) or children (17%) increased the odds (p < 0.05) of children having a higher UNa-24h. Checking sodium content on food labels and the use of table salt by the children or father was associated with a lower preference for salty foods (p < 0.05).


It is important to make parents aware of the relationship between their behaviors regarding the use of discretionary salt and their children's sodium intake. Our data suggest that salt-specific education programs on how to reduce salt both in-home and outside the home should be implemented to improve behavior skills related to salt consumption in parents and children.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Excretion – Food – Children – Parenting behavior – Schoolchildren – Sodium chloride – Urine


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