Magnitude of surgical site infection and its associated factors among patients who underwent a surgical procedure at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia

Autoři: Nefsu Awoke aff001;  Aseb Arba aff001;  Abiy Girma aff002
Působiště autorů: Department of Nursing, College of Health Science and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia aff001;  Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(12)
Kategorie: Research Article



Surgical site infections are infections that take place within 30 days of an operative procedure. Worldwide, 23% of patients develop surgical site infections among all surgeries annually with the worst complications causing prolonged hospital stays, increased resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobials, higher health system costs, emotional stress for patients and their families, and substantial economic burdens on hospitals. Therefore, this study was created to assess the magnitude and associated factors of surgical site infection at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital.


We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on patients who underwent a surgical procedure in 2018 at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital. We applied a systematic random sampling technique to obtain 261 patient records from all records of surgical patients from January 1, 2018, to December 30, 2018. We collected data using a pretested checklist. We used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with surgical site infection. We considered a P-value < 0.05 as statistically significant. Summary measures, texts, tables, and figures present the results of the analysis.


Among the 261 patients, 34 or 13% (95% CI = 9.2%, 17.2%) developed surgical site infection. Patients younger than 40 years old [AOR 6.45; 95% CI (1.56, 26.67)], illiterate [AOR 4.25; 95% CI (1.52, 11.84)], with a history of previous hospitalization [AOR 4.50; 95% CI (1.44, 14.08)], with a prolonged preoperative hospital stay (≥ 7 days) [AOR 3.88; 95% CI (1.46, 10.29)], and admitted to the public wing of the ward [AOR 0.24; 95% CI (0.07, 0.79)] possessed factors associated with surgical site infection.


The magnitude of surgical site infection in this study was high. Shortening preoperative hospital stays, delivering intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis before surgery, and giving wound care as ordered would significantly reduce the incidence of surgical site infection.

Klíčová slova:

Abdominal surgery – Data processing – Hospitals – Literacy – Nosocomial infections – Pediatric infections – Surgical and invasive medical procedures – Universities


1. Heather L. O., David H. K., Louise F. L., Janet L. K., Deirdre O.D., Susie J., et al. Foundations of Best Practice for Skin and Wound Management: Best Practice Recommendations for The Prevention and Management of Wounds. 2018.

2. World Health Organization (WHO). First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care. 2009.

3. Savino John A., Smeland Jane, Flink Ellen L., Ruperto Angelo, Hines Amanda, Sullivan Thomas, et al. Implementation of an Evidence based Protocol for Surgical Infection Prophylaxis. New York Medical College. 2003;3.

4. Daud-Gallotti RM, Costa SF, Guimara˜es T, Padilha KG, Inoue EN. Nursing ONE: Workload as a Risk Factor for Healthcare Associated Infections in ICU: A Prospective Study. PLoS Med. 2012;7(12).

5. Maurya A. Prevention of Post-Operative Wound Infection in Accordance with Evidence Based Practice, Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Scienceand Research. 2012;3.

6. Suzanne M. Pear. Patient Risk Factors and Best Practices for Surgical Site Infection Prevention. 2007.

7. Bello Famakinwa TT, Oyeniran B.G., Okhiah YA, Nwadike R.N. Knowledge and practice of post-operative wound infection prevention Among nurses in the surgical unit of teaching hospital in Nigeria. IJBAIR. 2014;3(1):23–8

8. Brisibe S., Ordinioha B, Gbeneolol PK. Knowledge, attitude, and infection control Practices of two tertiary hospitals in Port‑Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;17(6).

9. Teshager Freahiywot Aklew, Engeda Eshetu Haileselassie, and Worku Workie Zemene, “Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors towards Prevention of Surgical Site Infection among Nurses Working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia”, Surgery Research and Practice, vol. 2015, Article ID 736175, 6 pages, 2015.

10. World Health Organization (WHO). Global guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection. 2016.

11. Legesse T L., Gemeda DH, Abdella SH. Incidence and predictors of surgical site infection in Ethiopia: prospective cohort. BMC Infectious Diseases 2017;17(119).

12. Deverick J. A., Kelly P., Sandra I. B., Bratzler Dale W., Dellinger E. P., Linda G., et al. Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(6):605–27. doi: 10.1086/676022 24799638

13. Mulu W., Kibru G., Beyene G., Damtie M. Associated Risk factors for Postoperative Nosocomial infections among Patients admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical Medicine Research. 2013;2(6):140–7.

14. Ashish P., Erika A. S., Shailendra S., Vijay K M., Harshada S., Cecilia S L. Incidence and factors associated with surgical site infections in a teaching hospital in Ujjain, India. American Journal of Infection Control. 2014;42:e11–e5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.06.013 24268969

15. Ali Ahmad A R., Abdul R., Saleh Al M., Zahid U K. Surgical Site Infections Incidence, their Predictors and Causative Organisms in a Teaching Hospital. Int J Community Fam Med 2016;1(104).

16. Ahmed O., Yakubu K., Enevene I., Ali S S., Olayinka BO. Occurrence of Surgical Site Infections at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Abuja, Nigeria: A Prospective Observational Study. Med Sci. 2018;6(60).

17. Brian M., Stephen E M., Phillipo L C., Can I., William M. Predictors of surgical site infections among patients undergoing major surgery at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania. BMC Surgery. 2011;11(21).

18. Gebremedhin M., Berhane H., Berhe N., Haile K., Sibhatu Y., Gidey T., et al. Magnitude and Determinant Factors of Surgical Site Infection in Suhul Hospital Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. SURGICAL INFECTIONS. 2018.

19. Héla G., Mohamed B.R., Chatha C., Fathia H., Oussama B.R., Sihem B.F., et al. Incidence and risk factors of surgical site infection in general surgery department of a Tunisian tertiary teaching hospital: A prospective observational study. Canadian Journal of Infection Control. 2018;33(1):25–32.

20. Ngowe N.M., Toure A, Mouafo T.F, Chichom A, Tchounzou R, Ako-Egbe L, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Post Operative Infections in the Limbe Regional Hospital of Cameroon. The Open Surgery Journal. 2004;8:1–8.

21. Georgios T., Ottokar S., Stavros M., Lazaros A. Patient, Surgery, and Hospital Related Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections following Total Hip Arthroplasty. The Scientific World Journal. 2015;Volume 2015.

22. Atif M.L., Azouaou A., Bouadda N., Bezzaoucha A., Si-Ahmed M., Bellouni R. Incidence and predictors of surgical site infection in a general surgery department in Algeria. Elsevier Masson SAS. 2015.

23. Suchitra J.B., Lakshmidevi N. Surgical site infections: Assessing risk factors, outcomes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(4):175–9.

24. Mathur P. Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control. Indian J Med Res. 2011;134:611–20 doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.90985 22199099

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 12
Nejčtenější tento týden